Main Article Content
The aim of the current paper is to provide an extensive review of the theoretical and empirical literature that justifies the need for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of tourism in the Kenyan institutions of higher learning. Further, a review of existing constraints is also explained using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which has proved to be a suitable theoretical model in helping to explain and predict user behaviour of information technology and subsequently proposes the way forward towards enhanced integration. This study examines literature review that reveals the different points of view in relation to the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in tourism higher education institutions in Kenya. Specifically this paper sought to establish the various ICT resources applicable in tourism education, determine the benefits of integrating ICT in tourism education and lastly establish the external factors and user based factors that influence or constrain acceptance of ICT in tourism education in higher institutions and recommend the way forward.
The findings from the literature reviewed indicates that, the use of ICTs transforms the teaching and learning experience by changing the manner in which the tourism and hospitality skills and knowledge is acquired. However, the need for more appropriate modes of delivery to make the tourism education programmes more convenient for the modern student is quite crucial. Findings further showed that students are willing to adapt and use ICTs for learning but there are numerous barriers that are either user or institutional based. It was established that institutions are slow to implement their use while lecturers are slow to adapt to their use. Other barriers to the integration of instructional technology into higher education that were identified included poor technology infrastructure, lack of proper institutional policies on ICT use and minimal low computer use competency. Further, many higher online educational institutions had failed due to the high cost of technology, poor decisions, competition, and the absence of a business strategy. Consequently, many universities that provide e-learning face enormous difficulty in achieving successful strategies, including the delivery, effectiveness, and acceptance of the courses. To effectively utilise ICT in tourism teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions (IHEIs) will require proper network infrastructures, increased computer to student ratios, good Internet connectivity speeds with high availability as well as technical support for the users. There is also a need for a change in the tourism curriculum to integrate the use of ICTs in teaching and learning while at the same time, enhance policies that recognise and award those who use of ICTs for teaching.
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