Assessing the Need for and Constraints to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Integration in the Teaching and Learning of Tourism at Higher Education Institutions in Kenya

Main Article Content

D. N. Kinyanjui


The aim of the current paper is to provide an extensive review of the theoretical and empirical literature that justifies the need for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of tourism in the Kenyan institutions of higher learning. Further, a review of existing constraints is also explained using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which has proved to be a suitable theoretical model in helping to explain and predict user behaviour of information technology and subsequently proposes the way forward towards enhanced integration. This study examines literature review that reveals the different points of view in relation to the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in tourism higher education institutions in Kenya. Specifically this paper sought to establish the various ICT resources applicable in tourism education, determine the benefits of integrating ICT in tourism education and lastly establish the external factors and user based factors that influence or constrain acceptance of ICT in tourism education in higher institutions and recommend the way forward.

The findings from the literature reviewed indicates that, the use of ICTs transforms the teaching and learning experience by changing the manner in which the tourism and hospitality skills and knowledge is acquired.  However, the need for more appropriate modes of delivery to make the tourism education programmes more convenient for the modern student is quite crucial. Findings further showed that students are willing to adapt and use ICTs for learning but there are numerous barriers that are either user or institutional based. It was established that institutions are slow to implement their use while lecturers are slow to adapt to their use. Other barriers to the integration of instructional technology into higher education that were identified included poor technology infrastructure, lack of proper institutional policies on ICT use and minimal low computer use competency. Further, many higher online educational institutions had failed due to the high cost of technology, poor decisions, competition, and the absence of a business strategy.  Consequently, many universities that provide e-learning face enormous difficulty in achieving successful strategies, including the delivery, effectiveness, and acceptance of the courses. To effectively utilise ICT in tourism teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions (IHEIs) will require proper network infrastructures, increased computer to student ratios, good Internet connectivity speeds with high availability as well as technical support for the users. There is also a need for a change in the tourism curriculum to integrate the use of ICTs in teaching and learning while at the same time, enhance policies that recognise and award those who use of ICTs for teaching.

Information communication technology, need, constraints, integration, teaching, learning tourism, higher education

Article Details

How to Cite
Kinyanjui, D. N. (2019). Assessing the Need for and Constraints to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Integration in the Teaching and Learning of Tourism at Higher Education Institutions in Kenya. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 31(2), 1-11.
Review Article


Tassiopoulos D. Use of the internet for enhancing tourism and hospitality higher education in Southern Africa: Implications for E-learning, New Achievements in Technology Education and Development, Safeeullah Soomro (Ed.); 2010.
ISBN: 978-953-307-066-7.

Farrell G. ICT in Education in Kenya; 2007. Retrieved from on 20th December 2015.

McNeal RS, Tolbert CJ, Mossberger K, Dotterweich LJ. Innovating in digital government in the American States. Social Science Quarterly. 2003;84(1):52-70.

UNESCO. New directions of ICT use in education; 1999.
(Accessed on 29/01/16)

UNESCO. Information and communication technologies in teacher education: A planning guide. Paris, UNESCO; 2002.

Romo G, Díaz S. New information and communication technologies as learning Tool in the Tourism Sector, 1; 2015.

Collins C, Buhalis D, Peters M. Enhancing SMTEs’ business performance through the Internet and e-learning platforms. Education + Training. 2003;45(8/9):483- 494.

Yukiko I, Bell S. Teaching with educational technology in the 21st century : The case of the Asia Pacific region. London: Information Science Publishing; 2006.

Swarts P. Kenya: ICT in education situational analysis. Global e-schools and Communities Initiative; 2009.

Nkansah GB, Unwin T. The contribution of ICTs to the delivery of special educational needs in Ghana: practices and potential. Information Technology for Development. 2010;16 (3):191–211.

Nduati C, Bowman W. Working from the sidelines: The Kenya private sector foundation ICT board story. In EF Etta, L Elder (Eds.), At the crossroads: ICT policy making in East Africa.. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers Ltd. 2005;56-67.

Waema MT. A brief history of the development of an ICT policy in Kenya. In EF Etta, L Elder (Eds.), At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers Ltd. 2005;25-43.

Kenya. Ministry of Education. ICT in Education options paper; 2005.

Ratemo J. Doing away with books in the classroom. Standard: Online Edition; 2009.

Kenya. Ministry of Education. National information and communication technology ICT strategy for education and training; 2006.

Laurillard D. Multimedia and the learner’s experience of narrative. Computers & Education. 1998;31(2):229–242.

Laurillard D. Rethinking University teaching (2nd Ed); A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. New York: Routledge Falmer; 2002.

Gunilla J, Nissen J. ICT in the classroom: Is doing more important than knowing? Education and Information Technologies Kluwer Academic publishers, Netherlands. 2004;9(1):37‐45.

Agostilio S, Oliver R. A tool to evaluate the Potential of an ICT Based Learning Design to Foster High Outcome Learning; 2002.

Shabaya P. The changing role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for instruction in higher education institutions in Kenya. Strathmore ICT 2009 Conference paper, Nairobi, Kenya; 2009.

Carnoy M. Globalization, educational trends and the open society. OSI Education Conference. 2005;2–31.

Kalbaska N, Cantoni L. E-Learning courses offered by tourism destinations: Factors affecting participation and awareness among British and Indian Travel Agents. Xiang Z, Tussiyadiah I. (eds.) (2014). Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism. Proceedings of the International Conference in Dublin, Ireland; 2014.
DOI 10.1007/ 978-3-319-03973-2: Springer

Traxler J. Learning in a mobile age. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning (IJMBL). 2009;1(1):1–12.

Legris P, Ingham J, Collerette P. Why do people use information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model. Information & Management. 2003;40:191–204.

Arning K, Ziefle M. Understanding age differences in PDA acceptance and performance. Computers in Human Behavior. 2007;23:2904 -2927.

Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR. User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science. 1989;35(8):982–1003.

Meoli K, Waema T. E‐readiness Survey of East African Universities (2008), Kenya Education Network Trust (KENET); 2009. Assessed on 15th January 2016.

Ndidde A, Lubega J, Babikwa D, Baguma G. Pedagogical integration of ICTs in Ugandan education institutions. Kampala, UG: Makerere University; 2009.

Hennessy S, Onguko B, Harrison D, Ang’ondi K, Namalefe S, Naseem A, Wamakote L. Developing the Use of Information and Communication Technology to Enhance Teaching and Learning in East African Schools: Review of the Literature. Centre for Commonwealth Education & Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development – Eastern Africa Research Report No. 1; 2010.

Minishi-Majanja M. Integration of ICTs in library and information science education in sub-Saharan Africa. Paper presented at the World Library and Information Congress: 73rd IFLA General Conference and Council; 2007.

Mutula S. IT diffusion in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for developing and managing digital libraries. New Library World. 2004;105(1202/1203):281-289.

Byron I, Gagliardi R. Communities and information society: The role of information and communication technologies in education; 2005.

(Accessed on 6 February 2016).

Kawooya D. Universal access to ICT and lifelong learning: Uganda’s experience. New Library World. 2004;105(1206/1207); 423-428.

Thong JYL, Hong W, Tam K. Understanding user acceptance of digital libraries: What are the roles of interface characteristics, organizational context, and individual differences? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 2002;57:215–242.

Lin JC, Lu H. Towards an understanding of the behavioral intention to use a Web Site. International Journal of Information Management. 2000;20:197–208.

Ertmer PA. Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 2005;53(4):25–39.

Shamoail E. Teachers’ perceptions and experiences in adopting ’blackboard’ computer program in a victorian secondary school: A case study (PhD Thesis). Victoria University; 2005.