Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science 2020-05-28T10:35:32+00:00 Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-981X)</strong>, publishes manuscripts with valuable insight to research, ideas and strategies of Education, Society &amp; Behavioural Science. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. This journal aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JESBS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all below mentioned areas.</p> Unregulated Social Work Practice in Botswana: A Risk to Professional Integrity and Clients’ Welfare 2020-05-28T10:35:32+00:00 Kgomotso Jongman More Tshupeng <p>Through professional regulation, the aspirational goals of the Code of Ethics is to become a legal obligation with enforceable accountability for public protection. The professional regulation does not only protect the public but also gives integrity and respect to the profession. Social workers are licensed and they always know that malpractice may lead to losing their registration and licenses. The above is a reality in many countries, while in Botswana, after 74 years since the first social welfare officer started to work in the welfare department, the country has not yet established any regulatory body. Even though the regulation might not be a guarantee for ethical practice, but it is better to have a framework that can be used to regulate in terms of monitoring and evaluating practice. The education and practice of social work is unregulated and has left a vacuum where, anybody who government deems to be eligible can be employed as social worker. The above statement is buttressed by the Children’s Act, 2009 section 2, which says, ‘a social worker is a person who holds a qualification in social work, or such other qualification as may be prescribed, and is employed as such by government or such other institution as maybe approved under this Act and any other law’. This has brought challenges in dealing with values, principles and standards of social work, teaching and practice in Botswana [1]. The complaint is that social workers are unprofessional and not adhering to their own code of conduct. From the complaints, the assumption is that social work has a code of conduct as a heling profession. The reality is there is no code of conduct and there is no licensure in Botswana. This paper is a narrative of examples of cases where social workers were deemed not adhering to their professional ethics and not providing service to the most vulnerable at the time of need. These stories are used as a yardstick to argue for the establishment of an ACT of parliament which will establish the council of social work. The council will be a regulatory body of social work.</p> 2020-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design and Practice of Chemistry Teachers' Workshop Supported by Virtual Reality Technology 2020-05-28T10:35:31+00:00 Beibei Xu Suyi Xu Christsam Joy S. Jaspe Ying Xu <p>Introducing virtual reality technology into the chemistry teachers' workshops can motivate teachers immersion and participation in workshop, and promote the research effect of the workshops, which is beneficial the professional development of teachers. Based on the characteristic of chemistry subject, this paper focus on the scheme and effect of introduction virtual reality technology into teachers' workshop. A comparative experiment is used to discuss the practical effect of teachers' workshop. By designing a framework strategy, virtual reality technology is introduced in teachers' workshop, the experimental group (51) and the control group (58) was established for comparative study. Adopt the method of quantitative analysis to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative data of knowledge sharing. Particularly, by utilizing the Kappa value estimated the consistency of table that measures the quality of knowledge sharing. The experimental group is superior to the control group in terms of login frequency, average online time and quality of knowledge sharing content. It logged in 2.5 times a day for an average of 1.7 hours, however, the control group with an average of 0.9 hours. The experimental group average 1.38 posts were greater than the control group with average 0.78 posts which issued by each teacher. Then, the average score of "theme" in the experimental group was higher than the experimental group about 1.7344 point, in the quality of knowledge sharing. And, the average score of contribution in the experimental group was higher than the control group too. The experimental results show that the introduction of virtual reality technology in the workshop can effectively improve the enthusiasm and participation of teachers, the teachers' research effect in this designed workshop also was increased significantly.</p> 2020-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psychological Stress and Health Hazards of Farm Women: The Social Ecology and Inflicting Functions 2020-05-28T10:35:30+00:00 Riti Chatterjee Sankar Kumar Acharya <p>Farm women are suffering from a lot of health related problems along with some socio-economic constraints where farming has been listed as one of the ten most stressful occupations in the world. In turn, they are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression or even suicide. This is an important co-morbidity of physical problems and if left untreated they may invite other health issues. This will affect the financial aspect also. And as the farm women are home maker along with their farm work, they have to face the challenge both in home and workplace. The problem is mainly due to different issues in the working place like long working hours, financial uncertainty and family disturbances. A study on this topic, was carried out at Boinchigram village under Pandua Block in Hooghly district as they are also suffering the same, with objectives to generate classified information on occupational hazards of farm women, to estimate the level of psychological stress in terms of a score of socio-economic and ecological factors, to estimate the level of interactive relation between level of psychological stress and score of socio-economic and ecological factors and to generate micro level policy implication based on the empirical study In order to collect the reliable experimental data, the selected parameters were taken, like: Age, number of children, B.M.I., Main health problems, Psycho-social hazards, family income per annum, family expenditure per annum, working hours per day, daily calorie consumption etc. Majority of the population under study are poor, undernourished farm women. It has seen that, when the number of children in a family increased, it is difficult to their mother to attain the farm work and caring of their children at the same time because they spent maximum hour in the field. So, both the children and mother suffer from psycho-social hazards. And the calorie consumption level per day has some indirect effect because calorie is the last word to speak out. But income plays the most important role in stabilizing their mental condition. So, a better understanding of potential women-work environment interactions related to psycho-social hazards and mental health of the farm women is seriously needed to save the future workforce of agriculture.</p> 2020-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teachers’ Perceptions on Management of Conflict in Primary Schools in Mberengwa District 2020-05-27T09:44:15+00:00 Josta Nkomo Greanious Alfred Mavondo Obadiah Moyo Blessing Nkazimulo Mkwanazi Francis Farai Chikuse Mutovosi Onias <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Conflict is major social construct happening in most communities where people of divergent and different backgrounds finds themselves inhabiting a common environment. Schools formulate habitat with semi-seclusion from the rest of society and conflict arising needs to be managed. Also engaging is conflict resolution without taking sides in such environments where children interact with adults more frequently requires skills and training which aspects do not form part of teaching and learning curriculum. Peri-urban schools find themselves as rich ground for conflict due to their being neither urban or rural but tend to receive influence from both settlements. Conflict nature and conflict resolution may tend to take different forms from an aggregate of approaches seen or taken in urban and rural settings. Therefore, the study explored school teachers’ perceptions on conflict management in eight representative schools in Mberengwa District.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The sample of the study comprised of eight school managers, thirty-two members of school disciplinary committee members and twenty-four junior classroom practitioners Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in the study. The qualitative research design followed focused group discussions and open-ended questions fielded during interviews to school heads and school disciplinary committee members who formed the management team of the schools. Quantitative data was obtained through closed ended questionnaires given to primary school teachers. The school teachers were selected using a stratified simple random sampling technique and purposive sampling were used to select both the school heads and the school disciplinary members.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study revealed that poor communication(100%),unfairness (87.5%), shortage of resources(100%), role-conflicts(70.3%), poor governance (87.5%) and political afflictions (87.5%) were the root causes of conflict in primary schools when compares to other causes (P &lt;0.05). Thirty disciplinary committee members (100%) and twenty-four teachers (92.2%) indicated that student-student, teacher-teacher and teacher-managers conflicts were common in peri-urban schools contrasted to other forms of conflict (P &lt;0.05). Conflict resulted in strained relationships (100%), caused of disunity (100%), disrupted teaching and learning (88%), was time consuming (78%), lowered production (78%), caused stress and high blood pressure (100%) and diverted attention from crucial activities (75%). Heads of schools displayed a conflict avoidance as a conflict resolution strategy. Conflict management literature was in short supply in schools and schools rarely conducted conflict management meetings. Confrontation, collaboration and compromise were the most used conflict management strategies. Managed conflict had benefits of creating social change and allowed staff to engage more and needed to be included in curriculum development.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Primary school head teachers need to conduct meetings on conflict management and procure literature on conflict management to resolve conflict appropriately. Members of disciplinary committee need to handle conflict fairly and to consult literature on conflict management so that they can handle conflicts progressively and as benefit to teaching and learning. Educational officers need to facilitate and ensure that conflicts are handled appropriately and progressively. Introduction of conflict management as a learning tool, study area or be taken as a cross-cutting component in the competency-based curriculum was necessary.</p> 2020-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##