Teacher Self-efficacy and Its Antecedents among Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching Trainees of Dilla University: Implications for Ethiopian Secondary School Teacher Education

Main Article Content

Alemayehu Habte


The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self-efficacy belief of Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT) trainees of Dilla university and identify the factors that affect their belief with the intention of recommending possible improvement strategies to enhance effectiveness of the pre-service teacher education in program. To this end, descriptive survey design was employed because of its suitability for gathering data on attitudes, beliefs and predictions, behavior and experiences both in the past and the present. The study was conducted in Dilla University, Ethiopia on 2017 summer modality prospective graduates of Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching Program. From the total of 568 (161 Female & 407 male) prospective graduates who were attending the program, 112 trainees were selected as a sample using stratified random sampling technique. The results indicated that trainees have marginally average level of efficacy which suggested that they can have only ‘Some influence’ on their students’ learning performance and behavior. It was also found that attitude to teaching (β= .573, t=10.129, p<.01) was the biggest contributor to self-efficacy belief followed by teachers’ professional collaboration in secondary schools (β= .198, t= 5.276, p=.002) and in-campus training practice (β= .146, t=3.201, p<.05) respectively. In contrast to popular expectations, no significant mean difference was observed in trainees’ efficacy scores in terms of their Cumulative Grade Point Average. Based on these findings, it was concluded that trainees’ efficacy with regard to bringing desired impact on secondary school students’ achievement and behavior was not adequate and requires immediate attention. Hence, it was recommended that graduates should be given on-job training and teachers’ professional collaboration in Ethiopian secondary schools should be further strengthened with more emphasis on the affective dimension of the profession.

Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT), attitude, teacher self-efficacy, teachers’ professional collaboration, Dilla University, Ethiopia

Article Details

How to Cite
Habte, A. (2019). Teacher Self-efficacy and Its Antecedents among Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching Trainees of Dilla University: Implications for Ethiopian Secondary School Teacher Education. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 31(4), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.9734/jesbs/2019/v31i430157
Original Research Article


Tschannen-Moran M, Woolfolk-Hoy A, Hoy WK. Teacher efficacy. Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research. 1998;68(2):202–248.

Tschannen-Moran M, Woolfolk-Hoy A. Teacher efficacy. Capturing an Elusive Construct. Teacher and Teacher Education. 2001;17(7):783-805.

Cantrell P, Young S, Moore A. Factors affecting science teaching efficacy of pre-Service elementary teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education. 2003;14(3): 177-192

Maguire K. The role of teacher efficacy in student academic achievement in mathematics; 2011. Available in Proquest dissertations and theses database.

Pendergast D, Garvis S, Keogh J. Pre-service student-teacher self-efficacy beliefs: An insight into the making of teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education. 2011;36(12):46-57.

Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1986.

Mulholland J, Wallace J. Teacher induction and elementary science teaching. Enhancing self-efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2001;17:243-261.

Tschannen-Moran M, Woolfolk Hoy A. The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2007;23(6):944–956.

Cousins JB, Walker CA. Predictors of educators’ valuing of systematic inquiry in schools. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation. 2000;(Special Issue):25–53.

Coladarci T. Teachers’ sense of efficacy and commitment to Teaching. Journal of Experimental Education.1992;60(4):323-337.

Caprara GV, Barbaranelli C, Borgogni L, Steca P. Efficacy beliefs as determinants of teachers’ job satisfaction. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2003;95(4):821-832.

Gibson S, Dembo MH. Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1984;76(4):569-582.

DeMesquita PB, Drake J. Educational reform and the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers implementing non graded primary school programs. Teaching and Teacher Education. 1994;10:291-302.

Fives H, Hamman D, Olivarez AB. Does burnout begin with student teaching? Analyzing efficacy, burnout, and support during the student-teaching semester. Teaching and Teacher Education. An International Journal of Research and Studies. 2007;23(6):916–934.

Guthrie JT, Wigfield A, VonSecker C. Effects of integrated instruction on motivation and strategy use in reading. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2000; 92(2):331–341.

Bandura A. Self-efficacy. The exercise of control. New York, Freeman; 1997.

Derebssa DS. Tension between traditional and modern teaching-learning approaches in Ethiopian Primary Schools. Journal of International Cooperation in Education. 2006;9(1):123-140.

Ministry of Education of Ethiopia. Education Sector Development Programme V (ESDP V). Program Action Plan (2015/16 - 2019/20). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2015.

Ministry of Education. Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT). Curriculum framework for secondary school teacher education program in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2009.

Mohammed KH, Tadesse HA, Abdella YU, Wakgari TD. The Practices and challenges of Postgraduate Diploma in teaching practicum implementation in Haramaya University cluster, Ethiopia. Middle Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research. 2014;10:25-43.

Koye K, Yonas A. Practices and challenges of post-graduate diploma in teaching programme. The case of Haramaya University, Ethiopia. Ereflection Journal. 2013;2(4):254-274.

Koye K. Attitude of postgraduate diploma in teaching (PGDT) student teachers towards teaching profession in Ethiopian University College of teacher education. Middle Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research. 2014;7: 44-57.

Demis G, Haileselasie B, Dawit T. An exploration of student-teachers’ views about the practice of postgraduate diploma in teaching: English major prospective teachers in Bahir Dar and Haromaya Universities, Ethiopia: International journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2015;13(3):192-209.

Gorrell J, Capron E. Cognitive modeling and self-efficacy. Effects on pre-service teachers’ learning of teaching strategies. Journal of Teacher Education. 1990; 41(5):15-22.

Friedman IA, Kass E. Teacher self-efficacy: A classroom-organization conceptualization. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2002;8:675-686.

Woolfolk-Hoy A, Davis H. Teacher self-efficacy and its influence on the achievement of adolescents. In: Pajares F, Urdan T, (Eds.). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Greenwich, CT: Information Age. 2006;117-137.

Woolfolk-Hoy AE, Weinstein CS. Student and Teacher Perspectives on Classroom Management. In: Evertson CM, Weinstein CS, (Eds.). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 2006;189–219.

Wolters CA, Daugherty SG. Goal structures and teachers’ sense of efficacy. Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2007;99(1):181–193.

Yeo LS, Ang RP, Chong WH, Huan VS, Quek CL. Teacher efficacy in the context of teaching low achieving students. Current Psychology. 2008;27(3):192–204.

Riggs IM. Gender differences in elementary science teacher self efficacy. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association Chicago IL. 1991;3-7.

Klassen RM, Chiu MM. Effects on teachers' self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2010;102(3):741–756.

Cheung HY. The measurement of teacher efficacy: Hong Kong primary in-service teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching. 2006;32(4):435–451.

Newton KJ, Leonard J, Evans BR, Eastburn JA. Preservice elementary teachers' mathematics content knowledge and teacher efficacy. School Science and Mathematics. 2012;112(5):289–299.

Howell DM. A comparative analysis of self-reported teacher self-efficacy and student performance in the elementary classroom; 2006.

Mccoy AC. Specialized mathematical content knowledge of preservice elementary teachers. The effect of mathematics teacher efficacy; 2011. Available in Proquest dissertations and theses database.

Page CS, Pendergraft B, Wilson J. Examining elementary teachers’ sense of efficacy in three settings in the southeast. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education. 2014;5(3):31–41.

Goddard RD, Goddard YL. A multilevel analysis of the relationship between teacher and collective efficacy in urban schools. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2001;17:807-818.

Pajares F. Gender and perceived self-efficacy in self-regulated learning. Theory into Practice. 2002;41:116–128.

Bass BM. The future of leadership in learning organizations. The Journal of Leadership Studies. 2000;7:18-40.

Dale JC. The correlation of the perceived leadership style of middle school principals to teacher job satisfaction and efficacy; 2012.

Available:www.Digitalcommons.Liberty.Edu/Cgi/Viewcontent.Cgi? 55&Context=Doctoral

Knobloch NA, Whittington MS. Novice teachers’ perceptions of support, teacher preparation quality, and student teaching experience related to teacher efficacy. Journal of Vocational Education Research. 2002;27:331–341.

Billingsley B, Carlson E, Klein S. The working conditions and induction support of early career special educators. Exceptional Children. 2004;70:333–347.

Guo Y, Justice LM, Sawyer B, Tompkins V. Exploring factors related to preschool teachers self-efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2011;27:961-968.

Eraslan L, Çakici D. Pedagogıcal formatıon program students’ attitudes towards teachıng professıon. Kastamonu Education Journal. 2011;19(2):4237-438.

Demirtas H, Comert M, Ozer N. Pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward profession, Education and Science. 2011;36(159):96-111.

Oguz A, Topkaya N. The relationship between secondary school non thesis graduate program students’ teaching self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes toward teaching. Academic Sight. 2008;14:1-20.

Denizoglu P. The assessment of the relation between self-efficacy belief levels, learning styles of science teacher candidates towards science teaching and their attitudes towards science teaching, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Cukurova University, Institute of Social Sciences, Turkey; 2008.

Best J, Kahn J. Research in education (10th Ed). Sydney: Allyn & Bacon; 2006.

Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K. Research methods in education. London: Routledge Falmer; 2007.

Henson RK, Kogan LR, Vacha-Hasse T. A reliability generalization study of the teacher efficacy scale and related instruments. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2001;61:(3).

Shaukat S, Iqbal HM. Teacher self-efficacy as a function of student engagement, instructional strategies and classroom management. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2012;10(2): 82–85.

Isiksal M, Cakiroglu E. Teacher efficacy and academic performance. Academic Exchange Quarterly; Winter. 2005;28.

Darling-Hammond L, Chung R, Frelow F. Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education. 2002;53(4): 286-302.

Erawan PA. Path analysis for factors affecting pre-service teachers’ teaching efficacy. American Journal of Scientific Research. Euro Journals Publishing. 2011; 47-58.

Dellinger AB, Bobbett JJ, Olivier DF, Ellett CD. Measuring teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs: Development and use of the TEBS-self. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2008;24(3):751–766.