Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-981X)</strong>, publishes manuscripts with valuable insight to research, ideas and strategies of Education, Society &amp; Behavioural Science. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal. This journal aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JESBS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all below mentioned areas.&nbsp;</p> Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science en-US Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science 2456-981X Graded Readers as an Effective Strategy in Elementary ESL Teaching in China <p>The current mode of teaching English in primary and secondary schools in China mainly revolves around reciting words and studying grammar, which are not only less efficient, but also very uninteresting to the students. This paper, by referring to the Input Hypothesis proposed by Stephen D.&nbsp;Krashen and some previous studies, discovers that introducing graded readers to elementary ESL classrooms in China can effectively build up the students’ language competence and spark their interest in learning this second language, which will be very beneficial to their future study.</p> Liqun Feng Hongyang Dong Jingzhao Cao Xiaoqian Fu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 48 53 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i930456 Teachers’ Inadequate Support in the Implementation of Inclusive Education in the Johannesburg East District, Gauteng Province <p>Little is known about the inadequate teacher support towards inclusive education in South Africa. This study was aimed at exploring the inadequacy of support regarding the implementation of inclusive education in the Johannesburg East District, Gauteng province. The ecological theory of Bronfenbrenner was used as a theoretical lens for this study. Face-to-face individual interviews were carried out, whereby 15 teachers were interviewed. This study used a phenomenology design, underpinned within a interpretive paradigm, to gain insight on the inadequacy of support regarding the implementation of inclusive education. The data was inductively analysed using the thematic analytic methods that search for themes. The study used convenient and purposive sampling as initial plan to select teachers that a researcher can easily access. Non-probability sampling was used as sampling technique; thus, the sampling was unable to give all individuals in the population an equal chance of being selected. This study revealed that inadequate teacher support was prevalent in the district where this study was conducted. Teachers in this study mentioned that they struggled to implement inclusive education in schools, owing to insufficient support given to them Teachers need to be empowered through continuous development platforms such as training and provided with guiding manuals. In addition, structures should be made accessible to accommodate all learners and resources and supports should be made available for use in the inclusive schools. This study would contribute significantly in the understanding of the inadequate support provision provided to teachers in the implementation of inclusive education.</p> Andile Alfred Mdikana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-22 2022-07-22 1 12 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i930450 Type of School and the Level of Students’ Academic Achievement in Marakwet East Sub County <p>The major purpose of this study was to assess the effect of type of school on the level of students’ academic achievement in Marakwet East Sub County.</p> <p>Academic achievements in secondary schools have remained low with major disaprities between the boys and girls schools in Marakwet East Sub-County.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The study utilized the Causal comparative approach. The study was undertaken in Public Secondary Schools in Marakwet East, Elgeyo County Kenya between January 2021 to February 2021.</p> <p>Purposive, stratified and simple random sampling was used to sample 3 boys’ school, 3 girls school and 4 mixed schools. Findings showed the one-way between groups analysis of variance was F (2, 7) = 10.936, p.05. As a result, the null hypothesis which was stated as that there is no link between school type and academic achievement was rejected.In conclusion,the present study rejected the null hypothesis and concludes that the relationship is statistically significant. The sample data support the notion that the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable exists in the population of secondary schools in Marakwet East. Thus the hypothesis (H<sub>o1</sub>) was rejected. There was a link between academic achievement and the type of school. Boys' and girls' schools, in particular, performed better than mixed schools.</p> Charles K. Kisigot ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 13 20 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i930452 Students and Teachers’ Perception of Social Studies Subject: A Case of Selected Senior High Schools (SHS) in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana <p>The upsurge of moral decadence among the youth of Ghana these days seems to attest to the fact that the teaching and learning of social studies is beset by some limiting factors. The question that comes to mind is whether students and teachers really understand the purpose of social studies as a subject and whether they even have the right perceptions about social studies for preparing the use for productive citizenship. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was chosen for this study involving 335 SHS social studies students and 32 social studies teachers for the 2020-2021 academic years within the Tamale Metropolis. Questionnaires were designed to collect data from the respondents. The quantitative data obtained were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. The results showed that even though students and teachers of social studies had appreciable knowledge of what social studies is meant to achieve in the lives of students, the realization of the aims of social studies appears to be hindered by perceptions they have about social studies classroom climate, a situation that has led to poor participation during lessons. The study therefore, recommends that resources such as social studies room, museum, laboratory, reference books, and audio-visual materials should be made available during social studies lessons to encourage active participation by learners.</p> Lucy Segkulu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 21 34 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i930454 Exploring the Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach on Students’ Performance in Solving Mathematical Problems under Circles (Geometry) <p>This research work aimed to explore the impact of Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach of teaching mathematical problem solving in circles under geometry at Wiawso College of Education. The research design adopted for the study was action research and its main objective was to improve practices. The target population was level 100 students of the College and the population size was four hundred and nineteen (419) whilst the sample size was one hundred (100), comprising two (2) classes, which was selected based on purposive sampling. The instrument used for the study was tests. In the pre-intervention stage, a pre-test was used to identify the weaknesses of the students before the interventional strategies were applied. A post-test was conducted to evaluate the intervention strategies. The quantitative data was then analyzed using paired sample t-test, the means and their respective standard deviations, were calculated. The post-test mean scores of 21.40 (Standard deviation of 2.37) and 20.10 (Standard deviation of 2.85) is significantly higher than the pre-test mean scores of 7.40 (Standard deviation of 2.84) and 7.60 (Standard deviation of 3.53). The results of the study clearly showed that, there has been a remarkable improvement in the students’ performance in solving mathematical problem in circles under geometry, when they were taught using problem-based learning approach. A quiz was conducted six weeks after the post-test using the same test items to check students’ retention of the concept. The quiz mean scores of 21.90 (Standard deviation of 1.91) and 20.30 (Standard deviation of 2.58) is not significantly higher than the post-test mean scores of 21.40 (Standard deviation of 2.37) and 20.10 (Standard deviation of 2.85). The result showed that the students’ retention of the concept had been exceptionally good. The study recommended that teachers should be encouraged to employ problem-based learning approach in teaching geometry.</p> Yaw Ackaah Mensah Evans Atteh Augustine Boadi Isaac Assan-Donkoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 35 47 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i930455 Effect of COVID-19 on the Need for and Access to Family Planning among Nigerian Women: Secondary Analysis of an International Survey <p>During the lockdown, there was a disruption in the provision of and access to family planning (FP) services in developing countries due to the covid 19 pandemic mostly because of restrictions on transportation, border closures, and closure of some healthcare institutions.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study examined the impact of covid-19 on the need for and access to family planning among Nigerian women and access to family planning among Nigerian women.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Secondary data was used and the dataset was obtained from the COVID-19 Health Services Disruption Survey 2020 conducted by Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (B, MGF), and Premise Data Corporation. Respondents were women between 15 - 49 years. Data were collected from 12, 354 respondents, and 391 were from Nigeria. Variables were measured immediately before the pandemic and during the pandemic (December 2019 – June 2020). Analysis was done using the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26. To summarize data, descriptive analyses such as mean, frequency, and percentages were used. Proportions were calculated to measure the association between the outcome and the independent variables with a 95% confidence interval.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>46.5% of the respondents were 25 years old or younger. The proportion of women who reported needing FP services decreased slightly pre and during the pandemic (12.0% to 11.3%) but it was not statistically significant. There was a 4.7% decrease in accessing FP services which was also statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study found a slight decrease in the need for FP. This could be due to movement restrictions or a fear of contracting the virus from clinics, which would discourage people from seeking FP services. Anxiety and psychological stress caused by the pandemic would reduce the desire for sex and influence the perceived need for FP.</p> Olanrewaju Kolawole Mufulihat T. Ibagbe Promise C. Ugochukwu Daniel T. Olorunfemi Chinedu T. Okoro Paul O. Arinze Philip O. Odeniyi Adedapo O. Omole AbdulRasaq T. Raheem Oluwasegun M. Adebayo Oghogho M. Bazuaye Favour T. Ujiogba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 54 61 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i930457