Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science <p><strong>Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-981X)</strong>, publishes manuscripts with valuable insight to research, ideas and strategies of Education, Society &amp; Behavioural Science. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. This journal aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JESBS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all below mentioned areas.</p> Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science en-US Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science 2456-981X The Extent of Premarital Sex Practices among Secondary Schools Adolescents in Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed at determining the extent of premarital sex practices among secondary school adolescents in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Its objectives were to reveal the extent at which secondary school students engage in premarital sex in the area and how such practices can propel risky behaviors among them.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 844 secondary school adolescents for the study. Information was retrieved from the field through questionnaire administration. Means and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the chi-square statistical tool was used in testing the null hypotheses in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that the premarital sex in the study was at low extent with the grand mean score x̅=2.26. However, the result indicated that 16% of the students engage in penetrative virginal sex, anal sex, oral sex and masturbation whereas 84% of the students do not.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> The study recommended among others that: All the head teachers and principals should play an active role by coming up with awareness program through seminar, rallies with strong guidance on dangers associated with premarital sex. Also, parents should always discus sex education with their children to be adequately informed with the right information about sex and the behaviour to adopt as they grow to puberty period to avoid engaging in premarital sexual practice at this early stage.</p> Christian O. Aleke Edith N. Obande-Ogbuinya Lois N. Omaka-Amari Afoke N. Eunice Precious I. Igwenyi Jude N. Nwafor Ifeyinwa M. Okeke Ferdinand S. Nchita ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 1 10 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230300 Discipline Management in Urban Middle Secondary Schools: Principals, Counselors, Students and Parents Perceptions <p>Guided by the principles of helping the children in continuity learning the research aims at discipline management in urban middle secondary schools. This study examined the disciplinary issues and different stakeholders; principals, Counsellors, Students and Parents perceptions. The sample of the study consisted of 15 participants. The study is significant because its findings and conclusions are so relevant to different stakeholders to implement and strategies to keep the students into the education system and also help the children improve their discipline.</p> <p>For school principals, counselors, teachers, students and parents, the findings of this research will help to maintain discipline in their respective roles and responsibilities entrusted to them. Policy makers at the ministerial level may use as bases for developing a national school discipline policy and guidelines. For future researchers it may serve as a handy tool or base to study further on discipline management. The project aims to investigate and explore viable strategies to enhance current practices of managing ethical issues concerning students in schools. Qualitative research design has been used to conduct the research. To make the study more authentic and generalization purpose, a total of 15 research participants/ respondents were involved. The findings are fundamentally based on the lived experiences and perceptions of these respondents which correspond with phenomenological strategy of qualitative research. Although respondents had common views as well as difference of opinion on certain issues on discipline management of school, outcomes of the study are triangulated.</p> Sonam Phuntsho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-07 2021-04-07 11 19 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230301 Relationship between Facebook Usage and Academic Performance of College Students under the Royal University of Bhutan <p>The development of social media like Facebook has changed the lives of many people principally the students. Several opinions are shared on how social media have a negative consequence on college students and lead to worsening their academic performance. Facebook usage is extremely prevalent among most undergraduates and approximately 85% of students use it particularly the first-year college students as it offers students a feeling of community and friendship. Of the total 365 students surveyed, 344 were Facebook users while 21 were non-users. Majority of respondents having Facebook account use mobile phones i.e., 48% of total respondents, 42% use their personal laptops and remaining 10% use college computer. Students are more often subjected to reading social media updates than reading academic-related books. Hence, it revealed that those who spent more time on social media spent less time studying i.e., users spent 0.33 to 1-hour studying per day and non-users spent 2 to 5 hours studying. Pearson's correlation test showed that the time spent on Facebook was negatively associated with students’ GPA (<em>r</em> = -.198, <em>p</em> = .000). More the time a student invests on Facebook, the lower the average grade point will be. However, blocking Facebook is not a solution since students can easily access it via their mobile phones.&nbsp; As a result, rather than blocking the site, higher education institutions such as Universities and Colleges may encourage students to use Facebook for educational purposes by offering appropriate arrangements and training.</p> Ugyen Kelzang Tshering Lhendup ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 29 38 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230303 Teacher’s Involvement Level in Co-Curricular Activities in the Schools of Thimphu <p>This research primarily aims to examine teacher’s involvement level in co-curricular activities as co-curricular activities are considered one of the core components of the Bhutanese education system, where co-curricular activities promote enthusiasm, vitality, positive thinking, and team spirit which in turn, contribute to personality development [1]. Understanding teacher’s perspective and their work situation would strengthen the co-curricular activities in schools through proper directions and supports. Therefore, this research work was intended to see teacher’s involvement, interest, and training aspects in co-curricular activities. The report on “teacher’s involvement in co-curricular activities in the schools of Thimphu” consists of six chapters. Chapter1 states the importance of co-curricular activities in the education system and the rationale for conducting this study. It also highlights the importance of teachers in the education system.</p> <p>Chapter 2 talks about the background information on the research work through intensive literature review focusing on three objectives of the research. A similar kind of study, which was conducted in different countries is also reviewed and it was found that it has a strong correlation to our setting of the education system. Adequate evidence was brought into the discussion from various sources although such kinds of study weren’t conducted in Bhutan before. Through rigorous literature review, it was able to structure the research question and theoretical framework for this study.</p> <p>Chapter 3 discusses the research design, methodology, and analysis. For this study, a descriptive method was undertaken with a quantitative approach using survey questionnaires. The questionnaire was pre-tested and a reliability test for internal consistency was also carried out. The survey questionnaire was administered to about 120 teachers from eight different schools of Thimphu. Data analysis was carried out mostly through SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and a Microsoft Excel sheet was also used for preparing tables and graphs for interpretation.</p> <p>Chapter 4 provides the main findings of the study. The summaries of the findings from this study are: Firstly, the demographic detail shows that 70.8% female and 29.2% male participated in this research and from which 56.7% of the teachers were from the age group of 31-40. The majority of respondents were B.Ed teachers and representation of school level was maintained somewhat equal. Secondly, the involvement in co-curricular activities was found very impressive as the mean score was recorded at 4.1. It also showed that 90.9% of teachers are very familiar with co-curricular activities in school.</p> <p>Thirdly it was also found that the teachers do adequate planning and devote their time to co-curricular programs. However, it was found that they desire motivation and reward systems to be in place as they were not motivated by the current situation. Fourthly the findings showed that the teachers are in dire need of more training and workshops to upgrade their knowledge and skills in co-curricular activities. Around 86.6% stated that they need specialized tutors to to carry out co-curricular activities in schools.</p> <p>Chapter 5 provides some practical recommendations based on the findings. The recommendations are particularly made on the areas like; empowerment in carrying out the co-curricular activities, motivation &amp; reward system, provide enough training &amp; workshops , create suitable timing for co-curricular activities and ministry to carry out study on the relevancy of co-curricular activities in schools.</p> <p>Chapter 6 discusses the limitations, significance &amp; scope of the study, and ethical considerations. Finally, chapter 7 provides the conclusion.</p> Sangay Khandu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-24 2021-04-24 39 58 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230304 Staffing, Supervision and School Discipline as Determinants of Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Secondary Schools of Delta State <p>The study was conducted to examine how staffing, supervision and school discipline could determine teachers’ job commitment in public secondary schools, Delta State. The correlational survey was adopted for this study. The population comprises of 13,484 principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Delta State. Purposive sampling method was used to sample 674 participates. Two instruments were self-developed for data collection, the instruments were titled “Staffing, Supervision, School-discipline Questionnaire (SSSQ) and Teachers’ Job Commitment Questionnaire (TJCQ). The instrument was validated through face and content validity. Additionally, the instruments were exposed to Cronbach alpha co-efficient and reliability test yielding coefficients of .81 and .77 was obtained for School-discipline Questionnaire (SSSQ) and Teachers’ Job Commitment Questionnaire (TJCQ) respectively. Data obtained was loaded into SPSS version 23 to compute results using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistics and regression analysis. Finding shows that staffing, supervision and school discipline are positively significant to teachers’ job commitment in Delta State public secondary schools. It is thus recommended that government should ensure that all schools within the state are adequately staffed such that the workload of teachers will reduce.</p> Ataine Juliet Asoro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 59 66 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230305 Career Aspiration of Students: The Influence of Peers, Teachers and Parents <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study examined the influence of Peers, Teachers and Parents in the career aspiration of students in public Senior High Schools. Three research questions and three hypotheses framed the study.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. One Hundred and Ninety Six (196) students, 30 teachers, and 50 parents were selected to respond to self designed questionnaires using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings indicated that: Teachers do not significantly influence the career aspirations of students, Parental influence is a major determinant in the career aspirations of students, Peers influence the career aspirations of male and female students differently, the influence of peers on career aspirations of students does not vary on the basis of age and programme of study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Peers and parents determine to a large extent the decisions that students make concerning the careers they may want to pursue, as such, it is recommended that: School heads should collaborate with counselling unit in schools to organise career workshops for students to help minimise the influence of stakeholders on students’ career aspirations.</p> Maxwell Kontor Owusu Abraham Owusu Ebenezer Tetteh Fiorgbor Joseph Atakora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 67 79 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230306 Resourcing as an Antecedent of Effective Online Learning Adaptation in the Face of COVID-19: The Case of Papua New Guinea University of Technology (PNGUoT) <p>This pandemic has utterly disrupted traditional education systems around the world. Even as a global search for sure-fire innovative solutions to the pandemic rages on, it is increasingly becoming clear that online teaching is no more of an option but, a necessity; changes that were occasioned by COVID-19 might be here to stay! While some are nervous that the abrupt unprecedented pivot to online delivery mode might result in a poor user experience that could stifle sustained growth, others are optimistic that a new normal of learning has emerged with significant takeaways. This study sought to examine how universities are adapting to the new normal of teaching online using a case study of PNGUoT. While acknowledging that the transition to online, asynchronous learning poses just as many challenges for students as it does academics,&nbsp; the study delves into the potential confluence of forces that are antecedents to effective online learning such as institutional policies, media, instructors and learners, and seeks to establish whether they can meaningfully predict effective online learning. A systematic search from literature coupled with the study findings suggests a moderately strong positive effect of resourcing on effective online learning thereby rejecting a null hypothesis and accepting its alternate. The study concludes that the adoption of online learning will continue to persist in the post-pandemic era and as such, therefore, stakeholders in the education space must bolster their capabilities to provide quality online learning as a panacea.</p> S. Tindi Nuru Ssemugenyi Fred Peter Oyekola C. Tochukwu Ngene ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 80 89 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230307 Effectiveness of School Heads’ Financial Management Skills in Provision of Quality Education in Secondary School <p>The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of school heads’ financial management skills in the provision of quality education in secondary schools. This study explored secondary data by reviewing documents and literature materials from online publications and libraries to attain the intended purpose of the study. The study found out that financial management skills such as mobilizing school funds, monitoring, evaluation of budget, and auditing skills were essential for school financial management. The study also found that most of the school heads possess insufficient skills in financial management as school managers. Other financial management challenges were a shortage of school funds, poor monitoring, evaluation, and auditing of school finances. The study suggests strategies such as capacity building among the school heads. Also, decentralization of financial decision making, relevant school mission, and vision, enhance effective monitoring, evaluation, and auditing of financial report as strategies for improving school heads’ financial management skills. The study recommended the necessity of having school heads who are skilled in school-based financial management strategies. The study requested responsible departments or ministries concerns with education to make financial management skills be one of the pre-condition for hiring or promoting a teacher to the top post of school administration.</p> Onesmo Amos Goodluck Ephrahem Agnes Bhoke-Africanus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 20 28 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230302 Policy Implementation to Improve Tourism Destination Based on Local Wisdom in Gunungkidul Regency Yogyakarta, Indonesia <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To describe the implementation of policies to increase tourist destinations based on local wisdom which comes from various types of reading such as previous research, news articles and indicator setmore towards material things.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Literature study model.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Gunungkidul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, between Oct 2020 and Jan 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Qualitative method with a Literature study model. Several articles were collected from various sources with the theme of policies to increase tourist destinations based on local wisdom and tourism policies in Gunungkidul Regency. About 50 articles of national and international scientific journals, online mass media and laws and regulations were obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The current policy for increasing tourist destinations in Gunungkidul Regency has not prioritized the value base of local wisdom. Furthermore, it discusses the implementation and obstacles faced in relation to policies to increase tourist destinations based on local wisdom. The implementation of policies in terms of resources leads to the value of local wisdom in developing human resources which ultimately leads to material benefits. There has been no implementation that leads to local wisdom values ​​of natural resource conservation, social, ethical and moral meanings. The implementation of policies in terms of communication between the public and the government is good enough, however, among tourism business actors is not optimal.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the above discussion, it can be concluded that policy implementation in terms of resources leads to the value of local wisdom in developing human resources which ultimately leads to material benefits. There has been no implementation that leads to local wisdom values ​​of natural resource conservation, social, ethical and moral meanings. The implementation of policies in terms of communication between the community and the government is quite good, but among tourism business actors is not optimal.</p> Dwi Atmaji Zuly Qodir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-05 2021-05-05 90 102 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i230308