Open Access Commentary

Black Ice: Teaching and Learning during COVID 19 - A Reflection

Brian D. Carpenter, Jean Vasilko, Jack Murphy

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 77-82
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i111186

This paper recounts how the beginning of the 2020 pandemic affected schooling, teachers, and teacher education. This short paper recounts how the teachers and educators reacted to and continued working through the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are journal postings, and notes about working with students and teacher education from the shared experience of a cooperating teacher, a student teacher, and a university supervisor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversification of Processed Tilapia Fish Products Based on Ecopreneurship to Improve the Quality of Housewife Education Management

Fitri Nur Mahmudah, Vera Yuli Erviana, Wahidah Mahanani Rahayu

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i1130465

Aims: Improving the ability of housewives to become tilapia farming communities in terms of processed fish.

Study Design: Using One-Shoot Case Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: A farmer group of 40 people in Polaman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The time taken is 8 months.

Methodology: The method used is training and mentoring of tilapia processing practices.

Results: All members of farmer groups experienced improvements in skills, knowledge, production, new entrepreneurs, and products sold.

Conclusion: This community service program can run well. The results of the programs given to KWT Sedyo Rahayu have a good opportunity to be used as material for the creation of a new independent business unit. Thus, it can trigger business independence, and economic independence for mothers, and generate better income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Difficult but Valuable! Learning in Student-centered Assessment Feedback Practices in Higher Education

Maunumäki Minna, Maunula Minna, Harju-Luukkainen Heidi

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 20-37
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i1130467

Aims: The aim of this study is to fill a gap in research on students' experiences of learning in student-centered assessment feedback practices. The article examines what students tell us about their learning in the context of student-centered feedback practices in higher education during online learning.

Study Design: The study was conducted as a qualitative online survey among Finnish university students (N=35). The relationship between learning and assessment was explored in the context of formative and summative assessment practices during an online learning environment. The data was analysed using a discursive approach.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in Finland during spring 2021.

Methodology: The scientific and philosophical framework of the study is based on the theory of social constructionism, according to which social reality is formed through language in an interaction between people. The methodology used was discursive reading, i.e., how social reality is discursively produced through language. The starting point was the idea that language creates different discourses or perspectives on reality.

Results: The feedback practices provided a different picture of learning and highlighted different dimensions of learning. Learning was discussed in terms of positive emotions, multiple perspectives, sociality, renewal, and holistic learning. In addition, negative emotions, disinformation, regression, and the playing field metaphor were associated with learning. 

Conclusion: The results show that feedback practices that are presented as student-centered do not necessarily support the learning process of adults. Learning and assessment practices based on pedagogy and a learning theory can best support students' personal and social growth and increase their self-esteem. In online learning, teacher guidance and pedagogically based learning support are emphasized. We argue that in online-learning, where the role of the teacher is often small, student-centered well-intentioned assessment practices can only provide a thin veneer of learning unless students are helped to see the holistic importance of assessment as part of the learning process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Couples’ Sexual Communication: Results from a Questionnaire and Conclusions For School-Based Sex Education

Arnold Hinz, Maraike Leemhuis

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i111182

Introduction: Previous research demonstrated that sexual communication is positively intertwined with sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study was to identify the specific elements (‘sexual languages’, nonverbal behavior, post-sex communication, self-disclosure of sexual fantasies, negotiation of safe sex practices) that contribute to sexual satisfaction, and to derive implications for school-based sex education.

Methodology: A mixed-methods approach was applied based on a questionnaire with open-ended items and two scales measuring sexual communication and sexual satisfaction. A convenience sample of 52 students (16 men, 36 women) recruited from Ludwigsburg University of Education was used. Qualitative content analysis was utilized to analyze qualitative data. Group comparisons and Spearman’s rank-order correlation test were performed to analyze quantitative data.

Results: Nearly all participants perceived their sexual satisfaction as high, while they rated their sexual communication as mediocre to high. Sexual communication correlated strongly (ρ = 0.51, P < .001) with overall sexual satisfaction. Respondents’ sexual satisfaction did not depend on whether their sexual communication was verbal or non-verbal. Participants with undisclosed sexual fantasies (which they would love to turn into reality) had lower sexual satisfaction rates. Around a quarter of participants described concrete teaching methods to facilitate communication skills in school-based sex education.

Discussion: The present results confirm, in line with previous research, that sexual satisfaction is highly predictable with sexual communication.

Conclusion: One of the challenges of sex education is the cultural lack of modeling on how to communicate effectively about sex. A central goal must be that girls and boys can perceive their sexual turn-ons and -offs and disclose them to a partner. This self-disclosure is a crucial factor in developing a positive intimate relationship. As suggested by one of six of the participants, role-play scenarios (behavioral skill training) seem to be well suited to learn how to communicate about safe sex practices, sexual wants, and turn-offs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethical Climate and Job Satisfaction via Mediating Role of Organisational Commitment (Case Study: Tutors in Ghana)

Samuel Obed Amoah, Henry Yaw Acheampong, Edwin Adjei, Francis Britwum

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 50-69
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i111183

Aims: Ethical climate is one of the vital features shaping intra-organisational relationships and tutors attitudes, thereby having an influence on organisational outcomes. Therefore, understanding the relationships among ethical climate, job satisfaction and organisational commitment is an important research area that needs to be researched. The main purpose of the study was to examine ethical climate and job satisfaction via mediating role of organisational commitment among College of Education tutors in Ghana.

Study Design: The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was employed in the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out from 2019 to 2020, among College of Education tutors in Ghana.

Methodology: The quantitative approach with the positivist paradigm was adopted for the study. A total of 250 participants through a multistage sampling procedures (proportionate and simple random sampling) were used in the study. Ethical climate questionnaire, job satisfaction scale and organisational commitment questionnaire were adapted and used in the study. Validation of the instruments were carried out using Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Results: The results revealed that ethical climate was a substantial predictor of job satisfaction, [b = 1.11; SE = .009; Boot95%CI (.1.091, 1.128)]. The result discovered that a surge in ethical climate would lead to 1.11 increase in job satisfaction. The results again, showed that the direct effect of organisational commitment on job satisfaction was statistically significant, B = 1.108, Boot95%CI [1.090, 1.127]. Further, with the introduction of organisational commitment, the indirect effect of ethical climate on job satisfaction was not statistically significant, B = .0011, Boot95%CI [-.0011, .0043]. This suggests that organisational commitment does not mediates the relationship between ethical climate and job satisfaction.

Conclusion: This study confirms the relationship between ethical climate and job satisfaction among tutors in the Colleges of Education. When the ethical climate of tutors increases the likelihood tutors would be satisfied with their teaching job.

Open Access Original Research Article

Problem Gambling Severity of Students Sports Bettors and Its Relationship among the Dimensions of Study Habits: Implications for Counselling

Eugene Kwarteng-Nantwi, Pious Jojo Adu-Akoh, Jane Odurowaa Edjah

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 70-76
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i111184

Gambling is a well-known activity in most nations. Problem gambling as an index of gambling refers to the adverse effects on the gambler, on other individuals, his/her social life or even on the community as a result of the individual’s excessive gambling behaviour. Hence, problem gambling refers to all the harmful behaviours resulting from constant gambling. The purpose of this study was to investigate problem gambling severity and its relationship with the dimensions of study habits of students’ sport bettors in the University of Cape Coast. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A population of 4,172 of level 400 students from four colleges of the university of Cape Coast were used for the study. Using the Krejcie and Morgan table, a fair representation of a population of 4,172 is 351. The researchers further used disproportionate stratified sampling technique to draw from each college the number required for the study. The PGSI items and Essuman Study Habit Inventory recorded Cronbach alpha of .76 and .97 respectively. The ordinal logistic regression was used to determine whether problem gambling severity had any relationship with any of the dimensions of study habits. The findings showed that the dimensions of study habit has a predictive relationship on gambler sub-type. It was recommended among other things that a proposed ‘Gaming Research Unit’ under the auspices of the Department of Education and Psychology should ensure the screening of students who are low risk, moderate-risk or problem gambler and with difficulties in their study habit should be referred for guidance and counselling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Heads of Secondary Schools’ Managerial Skills on Students’ Academic Performance in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania

Neema Mkude, Solomon Omer

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 83-87
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i111187

The purpose of the research study was set to investigate the impact of heads of secondary schools’ managerial skills on students’ academic performance in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The specific objectives were to determine the managerial skills possessed by heads of secondary schools which influenced academic performance in Morogoro municipality, to find out how heads of secondary schools’ managerial skills influenced the students’ academic performance and measures of improving heads of schools’ management skills in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The saturated sampling technique was used to identify the respondents for the study. Thus, all respondents were given opportunity to participate in the study. Twenty three heads of secondary schools within Morogoro Municipality were involved in the study. The data were collected through closed-ended questionnaires for quantitative data and open-ended questionnaires for qualitative data. The instrument reliability was tested using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha where the coefficient of 0.757 was realized and it was considered reliable. The quantitative data were presented in the APA tables for discussion whereas the qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The results revealed that most heads of schools were able to use different management skills to influence students’ academic performance in secondary schools. In order to get better academic improvement, there was a need for different measures to improve heads of schools’ management skills. It was recommended that. Heads of schools should be committed in school supervision by using the management competence they had acquired. In order to impact positively on students’ academic performance, Government should provide opportunity for management training in order to improve management skills, that is critical in enhancing academic performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Resource Practices and Performance Contracting in the Petroleum Industry in Kenya: A Case Study of Vivo Energy Investment Mombasa

Phyllis Nyagichuhi Githui

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 88-105
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i111188

The main objective of the research was to examine the human resource practices and performance contracting in the petroleum industry in Kenya. The research was done at vivo energy investment based in Mombasa County. The study was supported by Expectancy Theory and also McGregor’s theory X and Y. The research adopted a descriptive research design for data collection and analysis.  The target population of the research was 300 staff of the Vivo Energy Investment Mombasa and the investigator targeted a sample size of 90 respondents which is 30% of the total respondents. . The questionnaire was used as the research instrument for data collection in the study and analyzed through descriptive data analysis tools like tables, figures, percentages and SPSS. The research also applied the regression analysis to establish the affiliation amid the dependent as well as the independent variables. The coefficient of determination implied that the set of independent variables in this study accounts for 52% of variations in the performance contracting in the petroleum industry. The remaining percentage (48%) is accounted for by other variables outside the model. The result indicates that knowledge and information regarding the independent variables provides a great proportion of information regarding performance contracting in the petroleum industry in Kenya. The study recommended that vivo energy investment ought to include in their individual rewards a real reward administration in lieu of safeguarding efficacy as well as impartiality in their reward system. Such a system must observe the diverse areas work fairly. Consequently, the employee, cleaners and the like must be handled just like the senior fiscal administrators during the rewarding. The study findings lead to concluding that employee training at vivo energy investment in Mombasa Kenya has a positive effect on employee recital of these establishments. The correlation between the independent variables (employee’s training, employee compensation, and performance appraisal and employee promotion) and the dependent variable (performance contracting) results shows that all are positive and significant. In particular, employee’s training is positively and significantly correlated (r=.033, p<.05). Similarly, employee compensation (r=.203, p<.05), performance appraisal (r=.075, p<.05), and employee promotion (r=.230, p<.05) are positively and significantly correlated with performance contracting. The businesses design training agendas in lieu of certifying that employee training requirements are constantly met via counseling, assemblies, and support workers’ exertions in refining their flaws. Efficacy as well as competence of worker’s training amongst employees at Vivo energy investment in Kenya contributes considerably to the employee recital at individual and therefore the organizational performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moderating role of Negative Career Thoughts in the Relationship between Motivation and Burnout in Portuguese Dual Career Athletes

Liliana Faria, Paulo Nuno Vieira

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 106-117
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i111189

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motivation and burnout among Portuguese dual career athletes, and moderating role of negative career thoughts in the relationship between both. A total of 187 student-athletes, playing various sports, participated in the study and completed questionnaires on motivation, burnout and negative thoughts about their careers. Moderation effects were tested using linear regression models. The results indicated that there was a negative association between motivation and burnout and a moderating effect of anxiety and decision insecurity on the relationship between motivation and burnout. Understanding these variables is essential for the development of career intervention programs suitable for dual career of student-athletes.

Open Access Review Article

Regional, Decentralization and Traditional Power in Cameroon

Abdoulay Mfewou

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2022/v35i1130466

This article shows the process of transition from the unitary state to decentralisation, which is the transfer of administrative competences from the central state to the communities (municipalities). This law is derived from the Constitution of 18 January 1996, which was re-enacted by Law No. 2019/024 of 24 December 2019 on the General Code of Decentralised Territorial Authorities, with the creation of regions and elected regional councillors and traditional chiefs appointed as regional councillors by the central government. The particularity of decentralisation in Cameroon is the maintenance of governors, prefects and sub-prefects as representatives of the central state in the missions of the centralised power. Another peculiarity is the weak donation of the sovereignty of the delegations of the various ministers placed under the management of decentralised communities (Mairie). This donation remains weak in all areas. In the new model defined by the law n°2019/024 of 24 December 2019, regionalisation should be presented as a spring of economic and social development.