Open Access Original Research Article

The Evolving Knowledge Management Adult Learner

Jeff Stevens, Jim Chen, Kay Zekany, Mitch Adrian

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v31i230144

This longitudinal study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of the adult learners in higher education institutions in the United States. A qualitative design was utilized, engaging respondents from six geographic regions in the United States. This three-year, longitudinal research results were compared and contrasted with the eight principles of the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning, and best practices for meeting the educational and professional needs of the adult learner were proposed [1]. Since Knowles [2] published his seminal work on adult learners and their unique characteristics, there have emerged a growing number of studies categorizing these students.  Also known as nontraditional students, these individuals have been identified as sharing distinctive commonalities, such as: (1) full time employment with part-time enrollment, (2) dependent support (whether married or single parent status), (3) flexibility in academic and professional advisement, (4) acknowledgement of work- and life-experiences, and (5) are constrained by time limitations [3,4,5]. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Social Skills Training on Juveniles’ Psychological Problems in a Detention Center in Ghana

Mustapha Alhassan

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v31i230146

Background: In this world it is important to train children to acquire useful skills such that they would take care of themselves tomorrow and show good behaviors. The world can only be a peaceful and developed place if children are trained to acquire social skills that are useful. Therefore, to determine whether social skills training would change juvenile misbehavior this study was conducted.

Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental design. The sample was drawn from a population of 97 juveniles in detention at a Senior Correctional Center (formally known as Borstal Institute) in Accra, Ghana. The sample was 50 juveniles in a Correctional Center. The outcome measure was Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Test scores on delinquent behavior were compared across the two groups; (1) 25 juveniles who underwent social skills training (SST) and (2) 25 matched control group of juveniles who did not undergo SST. Participants in the training group underwent a one-month SST. The training sessions lasted for 60 minutes and they met three times a week for four weeks. Data collection was from May 2017 to August 2017.

Results: The results of the experimental group showed that 8 subscales somatization (df = 48; t = 2.39; p < .025), obsessive-compulsion (df = 48; t = 4.32; p < .001), depression (df = 48; t = 4.13; p <.001), anxiety (df = 48; t = 3.80; p < .001), hostility (df = 48; t = 3.74; p <. 001), phobic anxiety (df = 48; t = 3.80; ρ < .001), paranoid ideation (df = 48; t = 2.46; p < .021), and Psychoticism (df = 48; t = 2.28; p < .032) to have statistically significant differences.

Conclusion: This study found that out of the 9 subscales used only 1 scale was not statistically significant for the experimental group. This study provided evidence indicating juveniles who underwent social skills training (SST) had improvement in their social skills as compared to their colleagues who did not have such training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Education Quality Challenges in Ethiopian Secondary Schools

Belay Sitotaw Goshu, Melaku Masresha Woldeamanuel

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v31i230147

This article empirically assesses perceptions of Ethiopian secondary school teachers and education administrators on the challenge of quality of education, opportunities and explores viable options to improve the quality. To this effect, the descriptive survey method was employed. The information used in this study was obtained through questionnaires random sampling technique which was employed to select 72 Directors, 50 vice directors, 71 Supervisor 52 unit leader and 638 teachers targeted respondents respectively into two secondary schools. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. The result shows that in contrast to remarkable achievements in access, progress to date in raising the quality of education in Ethiopia has been limited. Most of the respondents agree that the achievement in gross enrolments is good but in quality, at a low rate and has learning achievement in education system remains unacceptably low. This has become a source of concern for government officials, educators, parents, teachers, students, and other stakeholders. In addition, the results confirm that curriculum content needs to be relevant to a labour market where meta-cognitive skills are at a premium while providing schools with the flexibility to create an instructional environment suited to local conditions and revising teacher training method in university or colleges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fire Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Eldoret West Sub-County, Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya

Ruttoh Japheth

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v31i230149

Background: Fire incidents in schools are worldwide phenomena that primarily range from being highly localized to global in scope. Safety of students and staff members pertaining to hazards, created by unsafe behavior, disasters or emergencies in schools cannot be guaranteed. 

Objectives: The current study examined the capacity of secondary schools in coordination and communication of fire preparedness well as level of awareness and adaptive capacity.

Methodology: The study employed a descriptive survey design. Proportionate sampling technique was adopted to select 16 out of the 80 secondary schools. Participants in the study constituted head teachers and other teaching staff in charge of safety, laboratory assistants and the chef. In addition, 280 students were selected from the 16 schools through random probabilistic sampling well as the DEO, 5 ZQAOs and 2 members of fire brigade team in the municipality within the district. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data.

Results: Sixty five per cent of the schools did not have disaster preparedness policies and plans. However, all head teachers acknowledged that it existed. 81% of schools did not have any alternative learning area neither emergency exits in the event of a disaster. Emergency instructions for safety in the event of disaster occurrence were lacking in many schools as acknowledged by 63% of respondents. Slightly more than half of the schools indicated evacuation drills and regular disaster preparedness meetings are never carried out. 63% of the teachers opined that their schools lacked laid-down procedures during emergency periods.

Conclusion: Negligible percentage of schools had designated teachers, being in charge of safety. Students had no sufficient knowledge on what to do in case of fire outbreak. There were no adequate training on disaster preparedness and prevention among staff members and students. Findings show a larger percentage of teachers and students do not know how to use fire-fighting equipment.   

Recommendation: Therefore, the study recommends capacity building programs among academic stakeholders on fire disaster preparedness and provision of fire safety support resources for combating fire disasters in all schools. The MoE should inspect and set ministerial regulations and guidelines on safety issues in all schools to ensure actualization of school safety manuals in blue print and needed commitment.

Open Access Review Article

Assessing the Need for and Constraints to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Integration in the Teaching and Learning of Tourism at Higher Education Institutions in Kenya

D. N. Kinyanjui

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v31i230143

The aim of the current paper is to provide an extensive review of the theoretical and empirical literature that justifies the need for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of tourism in the Kenyan institutions of higher learning. Further, a review of existing constraints is also explained using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which has proved to be a suitable theoretical model in helping to explain and predict user behaviour of information technology and subsequently proposes the way forward towards enhanced integration. This study examines literature review that reveals the different points of view in relation to the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in tourism higher education institutions in Kenya. Specifically this paper sought to establish the various ICT resources applicable in tourism education, determine the benefits of integrating ICT in tourism education and lastly establish the external factors and user based factors that influence or constrain acceptance of ICT in tourism education in higher institutions and recommend the way forward.

The findings from the literature reviewed indicates that, the use of ICTs transforms the teaching and learning experience by changing the manner in which the tourism and hospitality skills and knowledge is acquired.  However, the need for more appropriate modes of delivery to make the tourism education programmes more convenient for the modern student is quite crucial. Findings further showed that students are willing to adapt and use ICTs for learning but there are numerous barriers that are either user or institutional based. It was established that institutions are slow to implement their use while lecturers are slow to adapt to their use. Other barriers to the integration of instructional technology into higher education that were identified included poor technology infrastructure, lack of proper institutional policies on ICT use and minimal low computer use competency. Further, many higher online educational institutions had failed due to the high cost of technology, poor decisions, competition, and the absence of a business strategy.  Consequently, many universities that provide e-learning face enormous difficulty in achieving successful strategies, including the delivery, effectiveness, and acceptance of the courses. To effectively utilise ICT in tourism teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions (IHEIs) will require proper network infrastructures, increased computer to student ratios, good Internet connectivity speeds with high availability as well as technical support for the users. There is also a need for a change in the tourism curriculum to integrate the use of ICTs in teaching and learning while at the same time, enhance policies that recognise and award those who use of ICTs for teaching.