Open Access Short communication

Trends in Social Inequality in Exposure to Bullying at School 1994-2018

Pernille Due, Mogens Trab Damsgaard, Mette Rasmussen, Bjørn Evald Holstein

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i130160

Aims: To examine social inequality in exposure to bullying at school among adolescents and changes in social inequality over time. We applied data from seven nationally representative school surveys in 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018 in Denmark, the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

Methodology: The study population was 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds, response rate 87.9%, N=33,460 with comparable data about exposure to bullying and socioeconomic status. The analyses included 1) absolute social inequality, i.e. percent difference in exposure to bullying between low and high socioeconomic groups and 2) relative social inequality based on logistic regression analyses with odds ratios for exposure to bullying by socioeconomic background.

Results: The prevalence of exposure to bullying decreased from 24.4% in 1994 to 4.9% in 2018. Bullying was significantly most prevalent among schoolchildren from lower socioeconomic groups. The absolute social inequality decreased from 10.7% in 1994 to 3.9% in 2018. The relative social inequality was 1.30 (1.19-1.43) in middle and 1.77 (1.59-1.96) in low socioeconomic group, compared to high. There was no significant change in relative social inequality from 1994 to 2018.

Conclusion: In the period 1994 to 2018 with substantial reduction in exposure to bullying at school there was a decrease in the absolute social inequality and an unchanged relative social inequality in exposure to bullying.

Open Access Original Research Article

Industrial Organizational Psychology Practices and Organizational Competitiveness: A Panacea for Career Growth and Development in Kenya Power and Lighting Company Limited, Nairobi, Kenya

Ssemugenyi Fred, Amboka Asumwa Augustine, Faud Abidi Obsiye

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i130161

The study delved the effect of industrial organizational psychology practices on organizational competitiveness in Kenya Power and Lighting Company Limited. Available literature indicates that the two variables under investigation correlate although with an irregular consistence on the account of practice in most organizations and Kenya Power is no exception. This served the researchers a favorable ground to hypothesize that organizational competitiveness is explained sufficiently not by the industrial organizational psychology practices. To guide this reasoning, the study thus adopted the following specific objectives; to establish the effect of talent management, work-life programs, work diversity and globalization on organizational competitiveness. The study further adopted a positivistic philosophical foundation which is based on real facts, objectivity, neutrality, measurement and validity. A true experimental quantitative survey and a content analysis for qualitative approach were employed. Questionnaires were administered on the employees of Kenya Power as it’s one of the key players in the energy sector in Kenya and the only firm where the problem under investigation seemed dominant. Findings were consistent with some reviewed literature despite having poor connotation with the status-quo in the company. All aspects of the independent variable scored highly implying that they are fit to explain a change in the dependent variable. Despite this empirical evidence, the practice on ground in the said company at the time of the study seemed inconsistent with the empirical data. Much as it is common sense to everyone in this company that organizational competitiveness strongly rely on the psychological mighty of the firm, the practice seems to suggest a different stance. This sends a very powerful message to Industrial Psychologists for their field is under siege, employers and employees seem to mind less about it despite its strong perceived relevance in predicting organizational success. The academic-practitioner divide is wide and thus the I–O psychology is much less likely to become more visible or more relevant to society at large or to achieve the lofty goals it has set for itself unless researchers, practitioners, universities, and professional organizations implement significant changes. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Transforming Youth Ministry Higher Education in Kenya: A Practical Theological Approach

Nathan H. Chiroma, Kevin Muriithi

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-10q
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i130163

Youth ministry in Kenya is evolving. In the Presbyterian churches in Kenya for instance, new positions for full time youth workers show the increasing emphasis on youth work. However, youth workers in many of the Kenyan churches have not been trained in youth work. If trained, the curriculum of the institutions of training reveals a lacuna in a practical theological approach to youth work. This article argues that effective youth work lies at the nexus of theory, reflection and praxis, hence higher educational institutions and seminaries, in particular, must reconsider youth ministry education curriculum to meet the current state and need of youth in Africa. Using a desk study, this paper reviewed relevant literature regarding youth ministry in Higher education. Although Africa is seen as a young continent, yet many educational institutions lack curriculum that is contextualized for youth ministry. The practical theological approach of Richard Osmer is utilized in this paper by looking at what is happening, that is, the lacuna in youth work curriculum; the literature reveals that even though some form of training is happening, there is a need to further standardize the curriculum to include key courses that are crucial in youth ministry; the interpretive paradigm of “why” considers western approaches in classical theology that entrench youth marginalization in Africa; the study find out that most of the literature in youth ministry are written from a western perspective with only few African authors, the normative question, that is, “what ought to happen” considers a biblical-theology of youth work from various literature and some South African institutions and the pragmatic question, that is, “the how”, proposes Pan Africa Christian University as a model Kenyan institution that is transforming youth ministry education in Kenya through the various programs they offer in youth ministry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring Strategy of Chrome Electroplating Workers’ Health at Company XYZ

Daben Suhendi, Kholil ., Kohar Sulistyadi

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i130164

Consequetly, one million deaths from 14% of fatality due to occupational accidents caused harmful substances in the year 2015; therefore, it increases of more than 90000 workers when compared to 2011. Company XYZ with workers about 2500 people is a company that provides special electroplating (chrome plating) service to repair vessels within industry.

This study aims to recommend a strong policy that can be applied to monitor chrome plating workers’ health in Company XYZ. The method used in this study is a qualitative approach with analysis methods, strategic assumption surfacing and testing (SAST) and to obtain decisions about recommendations to be taken using the exponential comparison method (ECM). The results shows that the level of exposure of chromium on workers in company XYZ was at high risk level, which may affected worker’ health, 2 of 13 workers have a rate of chromium in blood 1.11ug/L and 1.10ug/L. Therefore the expert recommendation of the medical surveillance program for this research study; that all workers are required to do periodic medical assessment every 6 months, and the medical assessment for worker prior joining in the chrome plating project is must. In addition, focused medical assessment will include complete blood count, liver function, renal function, chromium serum in blood and urine, spirometry, chest x-ray, integument and respiratory system. Deep interview on medical and occupational history, such as the presence of chromium exposure in the past, current and anticipated future exposures are also required to support the data for evaluation purpose. The ability to use respirators assessment considers as additional assessment to protect the workers accordingly. The health practitioner will summarize all medical reports, discuss and provide recommendation to employee as well as to the employer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring Cross-Cultural Perception of Educational Environment among Postgraduates by Using Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) Inventory

Zulfiqar Ali, Ahmad Sajjad, Ahmad Tauqeer, Anas Mohammad, Zafar Mahmood, Bina Nasim, Anis Ahmed, Husain Shah, Laji Mathews, K. Nayeem, G. Y. Naroo

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i130165

Background: A postgraduate training program should be focused on positive and healthy educational environment. Postgraduate trainees suffer invariably during their training when the hospital educational environment is stressful. It is, therefore very important to assess the training environment of an institute as a part of good educational practice.

Aims: The aim of this study is assess and compare the clinical learning environment in the postgraduate training programs in Dubai and Sialkot. We also measure the perception of autonomy, the perception of teaching, and the perception of social support to identify more specific weaknesses and strengths in an educational environment. We demonstrate the appropriate steps, focusing on the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM).

Methods: PHEEM questionnaire was completed by 95 postgraduate residents in an observational, quantitative study involving a cross sectional survey of the perception of attitudes and behavior in postgraduate training programs in Dubai (UAE) and Sialkot (Pakistan).

Results: We used “IBM SPSS STATISTICS 21” software for data analysis. The results were analyzed and compared between postgraduate residents from Dubai and Sialkot. The total PHEEM score we achieved in our study is 104.8. The comparative scores achieved between Dubai and Sialkot residents by three domains of PHEEM inventory include Perception of role autonomy (34.44/35.85), Perception of teaching (36.60/40.65), and Perception of social support (24.42/24.42) respectively. There is no statistically significant association between PG year of training and country of training but there is statistically significant association between gender and country of training.

Conclusion: PHEEM is a simple, multidimensional, valid and highly reliable instrument measuring the educational environment among postgraduates working in different cultures and clinical disciplines. There are more positive than negative as far as the learning environment is concerned in both Dubai and Sialkot; however, there is room for improvement. Perception of social support and role autonomy is identical in Dubai and Sialkot. But teaching is better in Sialkot, attributed mainly to pediatric residency.