Open Access Original Research Article

Unregulated Social Work Practice in Botswana: A Risk to Professional Integrity and Clients’ Welfare

Kgomotso Jongman, More Tshupeng

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i430212

Through professional regulation, the aspirational goals of the Code of Ethics is to become a legal obligation with enforceable accountability for public protection. The professional regulation does not only protect the public but also gives integrity and respect to the profession. Social workers are licensed and they always know that malpractice may lead to losing their registration and licenses. The above is a reality in many countries, while in Botswana, after 74 years since the first social welfare officer started to work in the welfare department, the country has not yet established any regulatory body. Even though the regulation might not be a guarantee for ethical practice, but it is better to have a framework that can be used to regulate in terms of monitoring and evaluating practice. The education and practice of social work is unregulated and has left a vacuum where, anybody who government deems to be eligible can be employed as social worker. The above statement is buttressed by the Children’s Act, 2009 section 2, which says, ‘a social worker is a person who holds a qualification in social work, or such other qualification as may be prescribed, and is employed as such by government or such other institution as maybe approved under this Act and any other law’. This has brought challenges in dealing with values, principles and standards of social work, teaching and practice in Botswana [1]. The complaint is that social workers are unprofessional and not adhering to their own code of conduct. From the complaints, the assumption is that social work has a code of conduct as a heling profession. The reality is there is no code of conduct and there is no licensure in Botswana. This paper is a narrative of examples of cases where social workers were deemed not adhering to their professional ethics and not providing service to the most vulnerable at the time of need. These stories are used as a yardstick to argue for the establishment of an ACT of parliament which will establish the council of social work. The council will be a regulatory body of social work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Practice of Chemistry Teachers' Workshop Supported by Virtual Reality Technology

Beibei Xu, Suyi Xu, Christsam Joy S. Jaspe, Ying Xu

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i430214

Introducing virtual reality technology into the chemistry teachers' workshops can motivate teachers immersion and participation in workshop, and promote the research effect of the workshops, which is beneficial the professional development of teachers. Based on the characteristic of chemistry subject, this paper focus on the scheme and effect of introduction virtual reality technology into teachers' workshop. A comparative experiment is used to discuss the practical effect of teachers' workshop. By designing a framework strategy, virtual reality technology is introduced in teachers' workshop, the experimental group (51) and the control group (58) was established for comparative study. Adopt the method of quantitative analysis to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative data of knowledge sharing. Particularly, by utilizing the Kappa value estimated the consistency of table that measures the quality of knowledge sharing. The experimental group is superior to the control group in terms of login frequency, average online time and quality of knowledge sharing content. It logged in 2.5 times a day for an average of 1.7 hours, however, the control group with an average of 0.9 hours. The experimental group average 1.38 posts were greater than the control group with average 0.78 posts which issued by each teacher. Then, the average score of "theme" in the experimental group was higher than the experimental group about 1.7344 point, in the quality of knowledge sharing. And, the average score of contribution in the experimental group was higher than the control group too. The experimental results show that the introduction of virtual reality technology in the workshop can effectively improve the enthusiasm and participation of teachers, the teachers' research effect in this designed workshop also was increased significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Stress and Health Hazards of Farm Women: The Social Ecology and Inflicting Functions

Riti Chatterjee, Sankar Kumar Acharya

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 21-32
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i430215

Farm women are suffering from a lot of health related problems along with some socio-economic constraints where farming has been listed as one of the ten most stressful occupations in the world. In turn, they are at risk for the development of stress and other mental health difficulties such as anxiety, depression or even suicide. This is an important co-morbidity of physical problems and if left untreated they may invite other health issues. This will affect the financial aspect also. And as the farm women are home maker along with their farm work, they have to face the challenge both in home and workplace. The problem is mainly due to different issues in the working place like long working hours, financial uncertainty and family disturbances. A study on this topic, was carried out at Boinchigram village under Pandua Block in Hooghly district as they are also suffering the same, with objectives to generate classified information on occupational hazards of farm women, to estimate the level of psychological stress in terms of a score of socio-economic and ecological factors, to estimate the level of interactive relation between level of psychological stress and score of socio-economic and ecological factors and to generate micro level policy implication based on the empirical study In order to collect the reliable experimental data, the selected parameters were taken, like: Age, number of children, B.M.I., Main health problems, Psycho-social hazards, family income per annum, family expenditure per annum, working hours per day, daily calorie consumption etc. Majority of the population under study are poor, undernourished farm women. It has seen that, when the number of children in a family increased, it is difficult to their mother to attain the farm work and caring of their children at the same time because they spent maximum hour in the field. So, both the children and mother suffer from psycho-social hazards. And the calorie consumption level per day has some indirect effect because calorie is the last word to speak out. But income plays the most important role in stabilizing their mental condition. So, a better understanding of potential women-work environment interactions related to psycho-social hazards and mental health of the farm women is seriously needed to save the future workforce of agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teachers’ Perceptions on Management of Conflict in Primary Schools in Mberengwa District

Josta Nkomo, Greanious Alfred Mavondo, Obadiah Moyo, Blessing Nkazimulo Mkwanazi, Francis Farai Chikuse, Mutovosi Onias

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 33-51
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i430216

Introduction: Conflict is major social construct happening in most communities where people of divergent and different backgrounds finds themselves inhabiting a common environment. Schools formulate habitat with semi-seclusion from the rest of society and conflict arising needs to be managed. Also engaging is conflict resolution without taking sides in such environments where children interact with adults more frequently requires skills and training which aspects do not form part of teaching and learning curriculum. Peri-urban schools find themselves as rich ground for conflict due to their being neither urban or rural but tend to receive influence from both settlements. Conflict nature and conflict resolution may tend to take different forms from an aggregate of approaches seen or taken in urban and rural settings. Therefore, the study explored school teachers’ perceptions on conflict management in eight representative schools in Mberengwa District.

Materials and Methods: The sample of the study comprised of eight school managers, thirty-two members of school disciplinary committee members and twenty-four junior classroom practitioners Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in the study. The qualitative research design followed focused group discussions and open-ended questions fielded during interviews to school heads and school disciplinary committee members who formed the management team of the schools. Quantitative data was obtained through closed ended questionnaires given to primary school teachers. The school teachers were selected using a stratified simple random sampling technique and purposive sampling were used to select both the school heads and the school disciplinary members.

Results: The study revealed that poor communication(100%),unfairness (87.5%), shortage of resources(100%), role-conflicts(70.3%), poor governance (87.5%) and political afflictions (87.5%) were the root causes of conflict in primary schools when compares to other causes (P <0.05). Thirty disciplinary committee members (100%) and twenty-four teachers (92.2%) indicated that student-student, teacher-teacher and teacher-managers conflicts were common in peri-urban schools contrasted to other forms of conflict (P <0.05). Conflict resulted in strained relationships (100%), caused of disunity (100%), disrupted teaching and learning (88%), was time consuming (78%), lowered production (78%), caused stress and high blood pressure (100%) and diverted attention from crucial activities (75%). Heads of schools displayed a conflict avoidance as a conflict resolution strategy. Conflict management literature was in short supply in schools and schools rarely conducted conflict management meetings. Confrontation, collaboration and compromise were the most used conflict management strategies. Managed conflict had benefits of creating social change and allowed staff to engage more and needed to be included in curriculum development.

Conclusion: Primary school head teachers need to conduct meetings on conflict management and procure literature on conflict management to resolve conflict appropriately. Members of disciplinary committee need to handle conflict fairly and to consult literature on conflict management so that they can handle conflicts progressively and as benefit to teaching and learning. Educational officers need to facilitate and ensure that conflicts are handled appropriately and progressively. Introduction of conflict management as a learning tool, study area or be taken as a cross-cutting component in the competency-based curriculum was necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Assessment Strategies Used by Basic School Teachers in Ghana: The Case of Assessment for Learning

Osei-Asibey Eunice, Kusi Prince, Nimoh Vivian, Bosson-Amedenu Senyefia

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i430218

Ghana’s new curriculum for the basic school emphasizes collecting and evaluating information about learners and using the information to make decisions to improve their learning. This study employed the survey research design aimed at evaluating the use of Assessment for learning strategy by basic school teachers in Ghana. The features, strategies and principles underpinning Assessment for learning strategy formed the basis of the construction of 16 item Likert scale with a reliability coefficient of 0.979. A sample size of 100 was computed at 95% confidence interval and randomly selected from the population. The study found significant difference between demographic variables (such as teaching division, teaching experience and gender) and the use of assessment for learning strategy. Female teachers demonstrated greater skills with respect to providing interactive assessment that gives immediate feedback and direction to students than their male teacher counterparts .Class teachers demonstrated greater skills with respect to providing assessment that is inclusive of all learners than their subject teacher counterparts .Again, teachers with at least four years of experience in teaching demonstrated greater skills with respect to use of variety of feedback from students as a basis for deciding on groupings, instructional strategies and resources than their counterparts with less than four years of teaching experience . The study recommended for continuous professional development (PD) session to be introduced for basic school teachers by Ghana Education service on effective use of formative assessment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic: How are the Future Tourist Behavior?

Suci Sandi Wachyuni, Dewi Ayu Kusumaningrum

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i430219

Aims: This research examines tourist travel intentions after the end of the pandemic.

Study Design: Descriptive quantitative study.

Place and Duration of Study: Research from February - April 2020 in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Methodology: This research is a descriptive study describing the current situation using a quantitative approach. Probability sampling with simple random sampling. Data collection using survey methods by distributing online questionnaires (Google Form) through WhatsApp broadcast messages and reach 128 respondents. Simple quantitative data analysis.

Results: The travel preferences are (78%), or the majority of respondents said they would go back on tour. About (65%) will return to travel in the near term, which is 0-6 months after the pandemic is declared over, of the type of tourism desired by respondents is nature tourism by (66%), The majority of the desired tour duration is short-period, which is 1-4 days. The survey results show that travel intention mean value is higher than travel anxiety.

Conclusion: Empirical predictions of tourist behavior after this pandemic ends. There are passion and optimism that tourism will recover faster because the majority of respondents in this study have planned when and where they will immediately after COVID-19 pandemic end with new travel preferences.

Open Access Review Article

The Evolution of Access to Speech Therapy Services in American Schools

Christina Bradburn, Cindy Gill

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 52-57
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i430217

Aim: To trace the historic changes, track the progress, and examine the laws that have resulted in access to speech-language therapy for American school children.

Rationale: Examination of the outcome of these changes will help future speech-language pathologists make optimal decisions for school children in the future.  

Summary: Over the last hundred years, dramatic changes have taken place in service delivery for children with speech/language disorders and other disabilities. The evolution of laws, the shifting mindset toward children with handicaps, and the development of the profession of speech-language pathology have ensured that students with disabilities who are in need of speech and language services are eligible to receive them in the schools. There are still difficulties and differences of opinion as to what makes a child eligible for speech therapy services and how service should be delivered. However, the progression that has occurred thus far has resulted in remarkable changes in speech-language therapy in schools in the United States. Examination of the successes and failures during this one-hundred year journey should serve as a roadmap for the future direction of the profession of speech-language pathology as it is employed in the schools.