Open Access Minireview Article

The Relevance of Mathematics Education in the Nigerian Contemporary Society: Implications to Secondary Education

Marcel Papka Agah

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530223

This paper highlights the universal importance and application of Mathematics to man and his environment. Several other intervening factors were suspected to be responsible for the poor performance of secondary school students. Suggestions were made for further in-depth research into the effect of such factors. It is hoped that this submission would help student’s have an ardent interest in mathematics, so much so that more and more students would begin to choose mathematics as a discipline to study. If it does, the purpose of this discussion would have been achieved.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Way You Perceive Your Body Matters: Interventions Aimed to Reduce Body Dissatisfaction

Lucijana Herceg, Mitchell Clark

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530220

Aims: To determine if brief interventions of cognitive dissonance, media literacy, and a mindful body scan can reduce body dissatisfaction among female undergraduate students and whether mindfulness, emotion regulation, positive and negative affect, and media literacy levels have an impact on body appreciation.

Study Design: The present study used an experimental design and included three intervention groups and an active control group.

Place and Duration of Study: Centre for Psychological Innovation at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Alberta, Canada from January 17th to March 6th, 2020.

Methodology: 78 female participants between the ages of 17 to 49 years with a mean age of 21 years (SD = 5.16). All participants underwent a body dissatisfaction induction procedure and completed self-report questionnaires on body satisfaction (using the Body Appreciation Scale), mindfulness (using the Five Facet Mindfulness Scale), emotion regulation (using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation), positive and negative affect (using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and media literacy (using the Critically Thinking About Media Messages, Media Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire).

Results: Three separate multiple linear regression tests revealed that there were differences in the variables predicting body appreciation scores at Time1, F(7, 70) = 12.09, p < .001, Time 2, F(7, 70) = 14.74,  p< .001, and Time3, F(7, 70) = 15.07, p < .001. A one-way ANOVA revealed that body appreciation scores increased for all four conditions after completion of the intervention, F(1, 76) = .069, p = .793 but not after the body dissatisfaction induction procedure or before the intervention.

Conclusion: These findings confirm that negative affect and low levels of media literacy contribute to feelings of body dissatisfaction and that brief periods of steering the mind away from the body lead to increases in body appreciation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Youth, Parental-determined Strategy towards Tackling Perennial Unemployment in Nigeria as Device for a Safe Future

Sunday Israel Akinde, Adejompo Fagbohunka

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530221

This study focuses on the youth and the parent fighting future unemployment through present combination of apprenticeship with studentship.  A phenomenon of which little is known, conducted in 4 selected secondary schools in Ondo state, Nigeria. Data through a multistage sampling technique, from 160 students’ terminal mean scores of third and first terminal results of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 sessions respectively, were analyzed. Results showed that consideration of the possibility of future unemployment has significant relationship with students’ combination of apprenticeship with academics [r (158) = 0.211, p < .05] among others. Although parents seek to play safe regarding future employment opportunity for their children,   differences in mean scores in academic performance indicate that those who did not combine studentship with apprenticeship (M=515.75; SD=171.58) outperformed those who did (M=513.52; SD=146.24). Similarly, combined activities have a direct relationship with stress capable of affecting physical and mental life of students thus casting doubt on the future safety net of the decision. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Frustration of Expectations and Aspirations in Pre-adolescents as a Cause of Emotional and Social Conflict

Ioannis Fykaris, Maria Rantzou, Vasiliki Matiaki, Sotiria Karolidou

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530222

Aims: The main aim of this article is to investigate the data on prevention and management of intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts in the school environment, which can cause feelings of frustration of expectations in adolescence (11-13 years).

Study Design: The design of the research was based on the assumption that frustration is a powerful incriminating factor in causing conflicting behaviors between students and that frustration can be used as a teaching skill in the prevention and management of conflict situations. The research in related bibliography focused on specific theories and assumptions that constituted the theoretical framework of the research.

Place and Duration of Study: The sample of the research were students aged 11, 12 and 13, attending schools in the Ioannina and Thessaloniki prefectural administrations. The specific administrations were selected based on where the researchers came from (the "convenience sample").

Methodology: The sample consisted of 50 students 11, 12 y.o., respectively attending 5th, 6th grade and 50 students 13 y.o., attending the 1st year of Junior High. All students were selected in a statistically random way. Regarding the research methodology, the research instrument used was a structured questionnaire, based on the following psychometric tools: A) Peer Conflict Scale (PCS), B) The Frustration Discomfort Scale.

Results: The analysis of the research variables correlations showed that: a) Research subjects who will vigorously pursue something, want it vigorously and find it difficult to wait for things to be done now (positive, moderate correlation P< .001. b) When there is likely to be no tolerance, then the expression of the expectation frustration may lead to conflict so that the frustration is not consolidated and the expectation of desire or pursuit is reached (positive, moderate correlation P< .001. The subjects of the sample tend to avoid negative emotions but also the situations for which they feel will cause them irritation (positive, moderate correlation P < .001. d) Statistically significant (positive, moderate correlation P< .001 is the correlation of feeling that they are receiving the attention of others, in relation to their willingness to impose on others, in order to gain respect. This does not negate the statistically significant correlation for the subjects to even claim to conflict until something changes that bothers them (positive, moderate correlation P < .001.

Conclusion: The different types of frustration and the various ways of resolving conflicts (highlighting 'compliance' as the main way) form the final research outputs, which are in line with the researchers' latest positions on the 'cancellation-aggression' hypothesis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Views of Parents and Guardians on Orthodox Christian Education in Greek Schools

Vasiliki Matiaki

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530224

In a period of intense theological ferment, where social and political changes have shaped a transitional period for the teaching of the RE in the Greek school, the present study, part of which is republished here with a focus on the levels of secularization of Greek parents, is part of my doctoral thesis, which is yet unpublished. It seeks to shed light on, the unknown, until recently, attitudes and positions of parents on Religious Education. The sample of the study consisted of parents and guardians of children of any age (N = 1032). According to the results of the selected analyzes presented here, Religious Education and the Orthodox Christian religion appear without losing its cultural and social value. We therefore conclude that secularization has not eroded the cohesive social fabric of modern Greek society, which continues to be a collective culture.

Aims: The main aim of this article is to investigate the attitudes and perceptions of parents and guardians about the teaching of religious education of their children. In this article are presented specific variables from my doctoral dissertation related to secularization levels of the sample of the research.

Study Design: The design of the research was based on the assumption that parents and guardians have a special interest in the Religious Education of their children, which is shaped by a variety of factors.

Place and Duration of Study: The sample of the research were parents from various regions of Greece. The specific administrations were selected based on "convenience sample". The final application of the research was introduced by distributing printed questionnaires during the period 29/03/2017- 14/12/2017, where 453 questionnaires were completed. During the same period, the questionnaire was formed and sent in electronic form via Google forms, from where 578 completed questionnaires were collected. For this purpose, an e-mail was sent to the country's primary and secondary schools, requesting that it be forwarded to the parents and guardians of the pupils.

Methodology: The sample consisted of 1032 parents and quardians of children in any age; about 85% of the subjects of the survey have children at school age (5-18 y); 15% of survey subjects stated that their children are either adults or children in pre-school. Νot any statistically significant difference was found between parents with children of different age.All parents/ guardians were selected in a statistically random way. Regarding the research methodology, the research instrument used was a structured questionnaire.

Results: The analysis of the research variables showed that parents and quardians as to their interest and attitude to the Religious Education (hereinafter the RE): they consider important the right to decide on the RE (67%), have a personal interest in the RE (69%), are aware of the parental right to choose their children's RE (74%). and they claim that one's attitude to the RE may be influenced by their parents' attitude towards the Orthodox Christian faith (86%).

 As to the character of the RE: They do not reject the purely Orthodox lesson (51% positive and 14% neutral, that means 65% do not reject it). They are not negative in the teaching of other religions, but this is being done distinctly, in separate sections (65%).They agree that Orthodox pupils are treated unequally when they are not taught their faith compared to other religions’ pupils who are taught their faith (65%).

 As to the value of the RE: They are in favour of the view that the RE in the Greek school is beneficial (82%) and that it is beneficial because it teaches to the student the message of life of Orthodox Christianity (78%). and that it is important to bring together the student with the parish life of the Church (70%).They are positive supported by the statement that the teaching of Orthodox Christian tradition affects the formation of the child's personality (77%).

Conclusion: Secularism has not eroded the cohesive social fabric of modern Greek society and still dominates a collective culture with fairly solid levels of religiousity. However, it is notable to see cultural variation, as a specific analysis has shown that residents from "Rural Area (up to 2,000 inhabitants)" seem less secular, closer to traditional cultural elements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Mentoring Enhanced Strategy on Self-regulation in Physics among Secondary School Students in Benue State, Nigeria

Gabriel Odeh Ankeli

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 55-62
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530227

The study determined the effects of mentoring enhanced strategy on secondary school students’  self-regulation (SR) in physics in education zone ‘C’ of Benue State, Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions while two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of the study was the quasi-experimental, non-randomized, pre-test and post-test control groups. The population of the study consisted of 4,064 SS Two physics students in the 94 schools in Education Zone C. The sample comprised 406 SS Two physics students drawn from 10 schools using multi-stage sampling technique. The research instrument adapted and used for data collection was Students’ Self-Regulation Scale (SSRS). The research instruments was subjected to a reliability analysis using Cronbach’s Alpha Formula which yielded a reliability co-efficient of 0.85. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that students who were exposed to mentoring exhibited higher self-regulation levels (P = 0.007 ˂ 0.05) than those students who were not exposed to mentoring. There was no significant difference between male and female students’ self-regulation level (P = 0.036 ˃ 0.05). Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that the use of mentoring enhanced strategy should be encouraged and used in physics instruction in secondary schools.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Mental Hygiene of Farm Women: The Socio-Ecological and Psychological Interpretation

Swagata Ghoshal, S. K. Acharya

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 63-74
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530229

The health-ecology and ecosystem has become very much vulnerable due to constant pollution, extortion, ground water depletion, arsenic and heavy metal contaminated water. This study dealt with health ecosystem and health dynamics of farm women so that they can combat various ecological and occupational problems as they are provider of food. This study was conducted with objectives to generate classified information on the mental hygiene of farm women. A survey was carried out at Kotulpur Block in Bankura district of West Bengal with one hundred farm women as respondents and they were selected randomly. The data were collected through pilot study, structured interview and focused group interview. The statistical tools used for data analysis were correlation analysis, multiple regression and step-down regression analysis, path analysis, factor analysis and artificial neural network analysis. Twenty independent variables were selected for this study i.e. functional literacy, per capita income, menstrual hygiene, status of drinking water etc. Distance of work place from residence (x7), duration of employment (x9), per capita income (x12), per capita expenditure (x13), dizziness (x17) and status of drinking water (x19) are some of those variables which have made a significant impact on the mental hygiene of farm women. Among those variables, per capita income (x12) is the most important factor as it has exerted the highest indirect effect on as many as 13 exogenous variables to characterize the mental hygiene of farm women (y) in path analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Non-Academic Senior Staff of University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Samuel Yaw Ampofo, Ebenezer Prah

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 75-88
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i530235

This paper investigated the demographic determinants of job satisfaction among non-academic senior staff (referred to as senior staff) of the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. By employing the descriptive design with a quantitative approach, we used a sample of 302 senior staff who were selected through multi-stage sampling procedures. An adapted version of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to gather data. One-way between groups Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and independent samples t-test were used to analyse the data. Findings revealed a statistically significant difference in the job satisfaction of senior staff concerning their years of working experience [F(2, 300) = 9.940, p< 0.001)], with senior staff who had 6-10 years of work experience being more satisfied with their jobs (Mean = 175.20). Again, the paper established a statistically significant difference in the job satisfaction of senior staff regarding their academic qualification [F(2, 300) = 8.357, p = 0.043], with senior staff who had second degree being more satisfied (Mean = 183.61). However, our results revealed no statistically significant difference in job satisfaction of senior staff concerning their gender [t (300) = -0.384, p = .701], and rank [F(2, 300) = -4.462, p = 0.061]. We concluded from the results that while some demographic variables (academic qualification and years of work experience) determine senior staff’s job satisfaction, others (gender and rank) do not. We therefore, recommend that managers and administrators of tertiary educational institutions should develop strategies to enhance working conditions that will ensure opportunities for further studies, higher responsibilities and promotion.