Open Access Opinion Article

Distributed Leadership in Greek Public Schools: Limits and Conditions

Dimitrios Gkoros

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 93-102
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130293

Aim: To know whether the legal and institutional framework of the educational structure and operation, therefore of the school leadership as follows, is properly formed in Greek educational system and what the model of distributed leadership plays in the Greek educational context.

Results: The organization of Greek formal education is based on the bureaucratic system. This centralized system of school organization leaves little room for action and initiative for principals and, consequently, for teachers. It is important that the personal vision of the principals is transmitted to the other members of the school, in possible sources of leadership, as a factor of change and inspiration for all, overcoming the abovementioned bureaucratic system but also for the system itself to change and become more diverse and flexible.

Conclusion: In our opinion the detachment from the traditional, hierarchical forms of leadership and the transition to the division of responsibilities and the decentralization of power is imperative. Despite the typical structure of any education system, we believe that schools maintain some degree of autonomy that they can use to create a power distribution network, even informally.

Open Access Short communication

Training Course Framework Directed towards Persons who Stutter: Concepts and Reflections with Particular Reference to Saudi Arabia

Abdulhameed Abdullah Alhabeeb, Ali Mubarak Aldossari, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 113-122
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130297

Speech fluency disorder is a common problem among children across the world, though majority of stutters recover either spontaneously or with appropriate interventions including speech therapy and related knowledge and awareness upsurge. This paper describes a skeleton of a new training course intended for the teaching of different perspectives of speech fluency disorder (stuttering) leading to enhancement of knowledge of persons who stutter. Evidently, it is mandatory to develop a comprehensive course before any training course is directed towards adults who have speech fluency disorder. For this purpose, our team discussed iteratively various methods and processes used in the construction of an effective training course framework. As a result, the concise needed short course should have a course framework and a distinctive rationale and justification with aims and specific objectives, important contents, teaching methods, proper evaluation, available digital infrastructure resources and a well-defined suitable time framework. The authors recommend that the semi-theoretical construction of the training course for advancing the knowledge of persons who stutter that is linked with improvement in SFD could be utilized in Saudi Arabia or possibly other Gulf countries with or without modifications.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Psychological Impact of Educational Process Disturbance upon COVID- 19 Pandemic among Primary School Students and Their Parents in the Gaza Strip

Sally Saleh, Azzam Abu Habib, Rawya Hamam, Said Abu Aita, Mohammed Alzir, Heba Jourany, Hassan Ziada, Sahar Harb, Yasser AbuJamei

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130286

Aims: At this study we aimed at exploring the psychological impact of educational process disturbance upon the COVID-19 pandemic on the parents and primary school students in the Gaza Strip in order to provide the decision-makers with systematic results that can form a base for short- and long-term plans related to improving the mental health of the population of Gaza.

Study Design: This study was an explorative qualitative study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip between July and September 2020.

Methodology: we conducted 30 individual semi-structured interviews with (18 women, 12 men; age range 27- 50) from the five governorates of the Gaza Strip. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed by the content thematic analysis using MAXQDA software to find out the common themes and codes.

Results: Our findings showed that the mental health of the parents was significantly affected due to the fear of catching the infection, the quarantine, the burden of distance learning, and the social disruption. They reported symptoms of anxiety, stress, depression, fear and loneliness. Moreover, the mental health of the children was impacted negatively as they showed different behavioral, psychological, and social problems that stemmed from the fear of the pandemic, the fear of the protective measures, the closure of schools, the unexpected alternative educational methods, the quarantine and lack of outdoor activities.

Conclusion: The mental health of both parents and children was negatively affected due to the educational process disturbance upon COVID-19 pandemic in the Gaza Strip, as a result, they need systematic programs that are directed towards improving the mental health and enhancing the mature coping mechanisms in order to overcome the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on top of the combined effects of the Israeli occupation and the siege.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proposing the Incorporation of Basic Medical Sciences into the Curriculum for Basic Education Training

U. S. Aguwa, O. F. Ovie, F. S. Onwuelingo, D. I. Okonkwo, M. O. Ogbonnaya, S. J. Asebioyo, C. E. Eze, B. N. Obinwa

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 11-17
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130287

Health is everyone’s business. Teachers are essential channels for transmitting societal values to the younger generation. To achieve this, attention must be paid to proper curriculum in teachers’ training. This study was designed to ascertain empirically the level of knowledge of teachers on the basics of medical sciences and to propose the introduction of Basic Medical Sciences in the curriculum for teachers training in Nigeria. The research design is a descriptive non-experimental survey. The research population was students of post-graduate diploma in Education (PGDE) and the sampling method was the random sampling method. The total study population is 1031 and the sample size is 165 determined by the method of Krejcie and Morgan. The control group was drawn from 80 students in 2nd semester 200 level of Anatomy, Physiology and Medicine & Surgery departments. The research instrument is a questionnaire. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed, 234 returned but 12 were disqualified due to improper filling. Therefore 222 (88.8%) was used for the study. Our results showed that male respondents scored an average of 47.66% as against 88.91% from the control group. Female respondents scored an average of 43.70% asagainst 74.91% by the female control group. Respondents on the average scored 43.28% in Anatomy related questions and 49.49% in physiology related questions. It was concluded that knowledge of basic medical sciences among teacher-trainees in Nigeria is deficient. On this basis we propose the incorporation of Basic Medical Science in teachers’ training curriculum in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teaching and Supervision as Determinants of Post-Graduate Studies Completion Time in Vocational and Technical Education Programmes in South-South Nigerian Universities

Titus Iloduba Eze, Sunny Nwakanma, Jacinta Ifeoma Obidile

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130288

This study was necessitated due to the need for post-graduate students to complete their programmes within the stipulated time. It examined the extent teaching and supervision determine post-graduate studies completion time in vocational and technical education programmes in South-South Nigerian Universities. One research question guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. The population consisted of 204 graduates of vocational and technical education programmes in South-South Nigerian Universities. There was no sampling since the population was manageable. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. Method of internal consistency was used to determine the reliability of the instrument using Cronbach Alpha and the reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained. The data collected for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to answer the research question and further determine the closeness of the respondents’ mean ratings. The t-test and ANOVA were used for testing the null hypotheses. Findings of the study revealed that teaching and supervision contribute to a great extent to post-graduate studies completion time in vocational and technical education programmes. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that teaching and supervision factors outstandingly determined post-graduate studies completion time in vocational and technical education programmes. It was recommended among others that, heads of school of post-graduate programmes should ensure that, only lecturers that are committed to work should be assigned as post-graduate course lecturers and supervisors.

Open Access Original Research Article

More Trust and Cohesion for Secondary School Classes – Experiences of the Implementation of the Express Yourself! Programme in Four EU Countries

Aija Kettunen, Heidrun Kiessl, Katrin Neuhaus, Sakari Kainulainen, Niko Nummela, Terhi Salomaa, Meike Heinze

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 42-65
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130290

Aim: The article describes and evaluates the implementation and impact of an inclusive grouping programme in the secondary school context, and how best practices can be established in different contextual and cultural conditions in Ireland, Germany, Lithuania, and Spain. The article is part of the Express Yourself! project and the European Union’s Erasmus+ Programme.

Methodology: The theoretical framework of this study is based on the self-determination theory. Following the PDCA Cycle, the project team developed a programme scheme (fitting for the broader European context) based on an experienced Finnish model as well as a research perspective. The participating school types ranged from secondary public schools in cities to vocational schools in inclusive settings and gymnasiums with students (approx. 12-20 years) from mainly rural areas. The Express Yourself! sessions include five meetings of 60 to 120 minutes over several weeks. Each session focuses on a different topic, but building up on each other. The training was held in the facilities of the schools and mainly carried out by external pedagogical staff. A 3X10D questionnaire, mainly gathering data on the well-being of the participants (N=677), and a trainer questionnaire, focusing on the content on perception of the session content, were used for the analysis.

Results: The article provides evidence that the Express Yourself! programme is a practical way of stimulating social inclusion in schools in different cultures and contexts. The research indicates a positive impact on students’ experienced overall well-being, especially in life-as-a-whole, managing daily activities, friends, and self-esteem. Deeper analysis of the results indicates that there were differences between the success of the project in cooperation countries. The main influencing factors were gender and age. 

Conclusion: The Express Yourself! programme was experienced as a low threshold and effective way to positively influence students’ well-being and inclusion. Promising results were promoted by the motivation and cooperation between the trainers and teachers, which was indirectly reflected in the atmosphere in the class. Based on cooperation, sessions were tailored to the needs of each class.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Students at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria

Boluwatife Adeleye Adewale, Yetunde Celia Adeniyi, Oluwadamilola Adeola Adeniyi, Blessing Comfort Ojediran, Peter Seyi Aremu, Olubunmi Emmanuel Odeyemi, Abiodun David Akintayo, Faith Anuoluwapo Oluwadamilare, Chiamaka Bianca Offorbuike, Iseoluwa Philip Owoeye

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 79-92
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130295

Introduction: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated the implementation of public health measures including social distancing, quarantine, and lockdown. Nigerian public universities have been closed since March 2020 after the viral outbreak. This study was carried out in order to investigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on undergraduate students.

Methods: The study was carried out among students of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. Study participants were recruited by snowballing sampling technique and data collection was via online self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaire was adapted from the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) to determine scores for depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Results: There were 322 participants with a median age of 22.4 (IQR = 20.5-24.2) years. Psychological impact was mild to moderate in 20.2%, and severe in 19.6%. Depression was mild to moderate in 19.3%, severe to extremely severe in 5.3%. Anxiety was mild to moderate in 10.3%, severe to extremely severe in 7.5%. Stress was mild to moderate in 16.4%, severe to extremely severe in 2.2%. Factors associated (p < 0.05) with increased levels of depression, anxiety, stress and PTSD include increase in time spent on social media, TV and movies, sleep duration, and decrease in physical activity.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant changes for Nigerian university students. Two-fifth of them reported PTSD symptoms; one-fourth reported depression; about one-fifth reported anxiety and stress. Students need psychosocial support to help them cope with and to effectively adapt to the changes caused by the pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Creating Effective Teaching and Learning in the Classroom through Problem Based Teaching Method (PBTM): Guidance for Accounting Teachers in the Developing Countries

Jacinta Ifeoma Obidile

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 103-112
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130296

Problem-based teaching method (PBTM), which is one of the student-centered teaching methods, has been found by scholars as an effective teaching method that enhances students’ academic performance and knowledge retention in the teaching and learning of several subjects, including accounting. But, no known study has simplified PBTM processes for use in the classrooms in the teaching and learning of accounting. This seems to have made its application in the teaching and learning of accounting at tertiary and basic/postbasic levels difficult. This study, therefore, has simplified the Problem-based teaching method (PBTM) for use in the teaching and learning of accounting at basic/postbasic and tertiary levels in the education sector in Nigeria. This research study was considered because of the environment where the teaching and learning of accounting usually take place in the nation. The study anchors on Social learning theory, which states that, as learners actively participate in the classroom work through problem-solving, advancement in knowledge occurs. The study concludes that accounting could be taught effectively at any education level in Nigeria using this simplified PBTM to enhance students’ academic performance and knowledge retention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Benefit of Blogs Dependency for Assessing Students’ Intellectual Achievement

Imran Ademola Adeleke, Ismail Olaniyi Muraina

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 123-131
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130298

Blogs stand out among many social media that allows teacher and students to maintain a running dialogue in various aspect of the teaching and learning process. It comes in form of thoughts, ideas, tests, short-works/homework and assignment to enhance interactivity between the teacher’s knowledge base and students’ comments and reflections. This paper promotes the use of blogs in assessing students’ intellectuals while comparing the use of blogging for assessment as well as the use of traditional assessment. The study stresses scoring on paper versus scoring on blogs, students that we're able to complete their visitation of the blogs were noted to enjoy and benefit greatly compare to those that could not finish theirs and whether the performance of male bloggers may be different from that of female bloggers. 45 students involved in this study from among degree students of Achievers University. The research study was done within a semester. The achievement test was the major instrument used to collect data from the same students that were exposed to two different tests (Paper Test/Traditional Test and Blogging Test) after proper classroom teaching. The results got were analyzed using mean, SD and T-test statistics. From the findings, it was succinctly shown that the scores of students engaged in blogs far better than when they initially tested traditionally. In the same trend, those students that completed their test on blogs demonstrated high performance than their counterparts that could not. Further, the results also made it crystal clear that students were distributed equally on blogging regardless of their gender differences. The findings from the interview conducted established the fact that the use of a blog for assessment saves student time, the distance for learning and having quick result as feedback. The student has a high interest in the use of a blog for academic purposes rather than only the social affairs of the student. The paper contributes to the existing knowledge by turning blogs as social media into academic media that can foster the academic achievement of students and can also be used to assess students better than traditional assessment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thanatology Students’ Attitudes When Facing Patients Death

Diana Cecilia Tapia Pancardo

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130299

Background: Health professionals constantly face patients’ death in their work places, along with a series of changes that develop during the mourn process of the human being in both, patient´s relatives and themselves. They intervene in some steps of the process since, consciously or unconsciously they interact with the hospitalized dying patient and relatives, either in a public or private institution. Health professionals receive some training in the subject, but it is not common so that they seek to get it. The aim of the study was to identify the attitudes of the thanatology diplomat students when facing death in their professional and personal lives, in order to promote their continuum improvement in thanatology attention.

Methods: the study was quantitative, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective; a questionnaire was applied to 33 students of the thanatology diplomat from National Autonomous University of Mexico with hospital practice. The questionnaire had 7 items with a Likert scale of frequent, infrequent, never, that included the variables of study, such as death process in different life steps, death due to suicide, sudden death, due to HIV/AIDS, etc. An Excel data base was created and descriptive statistics was used in the analysis.

Results: When a child was dying, 27 students were empathetic in communicating affection and companionship during the process, while the rest had difficulty doing so. For the death of the adolescents, 27 students behaved empathetic and affective, while 2 showed difficulty in accepting the death of the patient and the rest avoided interaction with the patient and relatives. In the case of adult death, 28 students behaved empathetic and affectionate; while for the older ones, 24 students behaved empathetic and affective, 3 believed it as a natural process that comes to an end.

Conclusion: Attitudes of thanatology diplomat students facing death, along their professional and personal lives improve once they received information for dealing with patients and relatives.

Open Access Review Article

The Mask of Personal Protection as a Cause of Depersonification of the Learners in Formal Education

Ioannis Fykaris, Vasiliki Matiaki, Despoina-Chrysovalantou Geroulidou

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130289

Aims: The purpose of the article is to highlight the factors affected by the use of the mask in special situations, like the one of the covid-19 pandemic. With the research of social, educational and psychological factors, evidence and conditions emerge, which deteriorate the psychic and social children’s life, studying in the formal education. The aim is to be understandable the significance of the person and his elevation in the modern educational and social reality, in an area where the use of mask is essential.

Methodology: The examination of the topics in this article follows the characteristics of the interdisciplinary approach. The article develops the consequences of using a protective mask in the educational, social and theological field. The approach is interdisciplinary, attempting to theoretically substantiate the issue, in order to lead to exploratory approaches to the issue within the scientific community. Therefore, this article does not refer to any research conducted by the authors, but the main interest is in structuring those factors that make the face mask a means of depersonalizing people, as a form of learned behavior, which is attempted to be acquired in the teacher environment. For this reason, this article is not presented structurally in the form of research presentation articles, quantitative or qualitative, but is developed as a theoretical research article in the field of paper review.

Conclusion: During the covid-19 pandemic, the use of a mask interferes with the effective communication and teaching relationship, which can lead to depersonalization. The concealment of facial features has socio-emotional consequences which disrupt the interpersonal relationships of learners. The educator must perceive the learner as a “person” and focus on his development. The didactic act should be based on the treatment of the learners as individuals, a fact that will restore the balance and increase their adaptive capacity towards the threat of depersonalization.

Open Access Review Article

Class Size, Funding and Academic Performance

James D. Williams

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 66-78
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i130291

Available data indicate that academic performance among students in the United States has in many cases remained unchanged or has been declining over several decades despite concerted efforts at the state and federal levels in improve performance. With regard to public schools, the decline is commonly attributed to large class size and insufficient funding.

Although numerous studies have examined funding and class size and their influence on student performance, many of these investigations did not consider the available longitudinal data.

Consequently, they fail to provide a clear examination of both funding and class size effects. Close examination of these data from the US Department of Education, however, shows no significant funding or class-size effect. The present study involved data mining the vast store of education research produced at the US Department of Education to examine the role of class size and funding on public education.