Open Access Case study

The Role of the Church in Curbing Drug Addiction Problems: A Case Study of Nairobi Chapel

Joseph K. Kosgei, Henry Mutua, Gyang David Pam

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 33-47
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i430322

Drug and substance abuse is considered a worldwide menace. Kenya being part of the globe experiences its effects. The Church, being a tool that helps society live godly lives, should take part in the fight against drug and substance abuse. This study sought to identify the role of the Church in curbing drug addiction problems. A descriptive case study and qualitative research approach were employed. 50 churches under the Nairobi Chapel umbrella of Churches were targeted. Questionnaires were employed to collect data from lead pastors in charge of drug addicts’ recovery programs within Nairobi Chapel. Data was analyzed and presented using tables and charts. From the study majority of the churches that took part in the research, only 40% had ministries to help in combating drug abuse, none of the churches had financial allocation for the same, on the human resource set aside; lead pastors comprised 85%, staff members 9%, while drug and substance rehabilitation pastors were 6%, on involvement in advocacy only 20% of the churches were participating, on the other hand, 61% of the churches took part in partnerships with drug addiction and rehabilitation and prevention programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Well-being of Staff in a Welsh Secondary School before and After a COVID-19 Lockdown

Andrew P. Smith, Arwel James

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i430319

Background:  There has been extensive research on the well-being of teachers, with much of it focusing on stress and mental health problems. Recent research has led to the development of the well-being process model, which examines predictors of positive and negative well-being outcomes. Research is now required to examine this model's applicability to teachers and those who communicate in languages other than English. Well-being has also been reduced by social isolation associated with COVID-19, and it is essential to investigate the causes of this reduced well-being.

Aims: The present study had three main aims. First, to examine the applicability of the well-being process model to teachers. Secondly, to investigate a sample where teaching was in the Welsh language. Finally, to examine the response to the COVID-19 lockdown in this group and identify predictors of current and long term well-being.

Methodology:  The research was approved by the ethics committee, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, and carried out with the informed consent of the volunteers (67 staff from a Welsh-medium secondary school; mean age 36.8 years, range 19-53 years; 71% female). An online survey was carried out, and regressions conducted to examine associations between the well-being process predictor variables and the well-being outcomes. Predictors of current and long term well-being were also examined.

Results: Thirty-six per cent of the sample reported high stress levels, but clinically significant anxiety and depression levels were low (7.2% anxiety; 4.4% depression). Positive well-being was predicted by high scores for psychological capital, social support, positive coping and low scores for negative work characteristics. Negative well-being was predicted by high negative work characteristics and negative coping, and low psychological capital scores. Current and long term COVID-19-related well-being was predicted by fear of infection and the stress of isolation.

Conclusion: The results confirmed the applicability of the well-being process model to Welsh secondary school staff. Lockdown during COVID-19 affected well-being, with the risk of infection and the stress of isolation being the major influences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Work-Related Stress and the Relationship with the Health Belief Model among Medical Doctors in a Tertiary Hospital in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

Chioma Okechukwu, Oluseye Babatunde B.

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 10-21
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i430320

Background: Work-Related Stress (WRS) is a harmful physical and/or emotional response resulting from a mismatch between the requirements of a job and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker in the work environment. The health belief model (HBM) is a psychological health behaviour change model established to describe and predict health-related behaviours regarding the uptake of health services. This study sought to determine the prevalence of WRS and to assess WRS among medical doctors in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Rivers State, using the Health Belief Model (HBM).

Methods: The study design was descriptive cross-sectional conducted among medical doctors in the UPTH. A proportionate stratified and random sampling method was used to recruit 363 medical doctors in two stages. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire which assessed respondents’ socio-demographics, Work-related Stress and Health Belief Model domains. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess relationship between WRS and the HBM components, while the multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the HBM components that significantly predicted work-related stress. The level of significance was set at p= 0.05.

Results: Most of the respondents were females (56.5%), married (90.1%), Christians (93.7%) and ≥36 years (71.6%). The mean age of respondents was 39.7±0.45 years. The prevalence of work-related stress was 66%, (Overall mean score ± SD=3.30±0.27). All components of the HBM were significantly correlated with Work-related Stress, and perceived severity showed the strongest positive correlation (r=0.687; p<0.001). All components of the HBM significantly predicted work-related stress except perceived susceptibility.

Conclusion: All the components of the health belief model significantly predict Work-related Stress except perceived susceptibility. Measures to address stress among doctors in the workplace should put into consideration these domains of the health belief model.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence KEMI’s Capacity Building Programmes Influence Head Teachers’ Competencies in Curriculum Supervision in Public Primary Schools in Uasin Gishu County

Josephine G. Ongori, Kisilu Kitainge

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i430321

Aims: The objectives of the study were to look at the influence of KEMI’s capacity building programme on head teachers’ competencies in curriculum supervision

Study design: The research adopted a descriptive survey approach.

Place and duration of study: This study was conducted in Uasin Gishu County of the North Rift region. The county lies within latitude: 0° 31' 0.00" N and longitude: 35° 16' 59.88" E. The study was carried out between May 2019 to October 2019

Methodology: The study targeted 5 sub-county education officers and 141 head teachers in public primary schools in the county. Random sampling was employed in choosing selecting the 141 public primary schools proportionately from each of the six sub-counties in the county. Every head teacher of the selected public primary schools took part in this study. Data was also gathered from all the six sub-county directors of education of Moiben, Kesses, Turbo, Kapseret, Ainabkoi and Soy. Data was collected using interviews and questionnaires.

Results: Findings indicated that there was a strong positive correlation between KEMI capacity- building programmes and head teachers’ competencies in curriculum supervision.

Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation indicated that there was a weak positive correlation between KEMI capacity building programme and head teachers competency in curriculum supervision, r (132) = .272, p < .0005, with KEMI capacity building programme explaining 7% of the variation in head teacher competency.

Conclusion: Head teachers capcity in curriculum supervision had been enhanced through KEMI capacity building program.The curriculum activities that had been enhanced comprise monitoring of timetable, schemes of work, records of work and lessons plans. This has enabled syllabus coverage in time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene among Rural Women in Northern Bangladesh

Md. Farid Uddin, Simon Heck, Debashish Chanda, Ebna Habib Md Shofiur Rahaman, Md. Monower Hossain, Md. Ektear Uddin

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 48-59
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i430323

Background: Sanitation and hygiene have huge impact on human health particularly on death and morbidity of children which are influenced by mother knowledge and practice on the issues.

Aim: The study aimed to assess the present situation of knowledge and practices of basic health hygiene and sanitation of the rural farm families in Northern Bangladesh with a view to find the ground for development initiative towards a better health and sanitation systems. The study also aimed to identify the regional variations in health and sanitation systems in Northern Bangladesh with a view to offer policy support and development.

Methodology: The study was conducted in six sub-districts of three poverty-prone districts – Gaibandha, Rangpur and Kurigram. The multi-stage cluster sampling process yielded a sample size of 386 household (HH) covering 24 different villages. Data was collected by trained assistants following a face-to-face interview using structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to organize the table with results. Chi-square test was used to assess the regional variations in knowledge and practice of hygiene and sanitation.

Results: About 70% families use unsafe latrines where a significant portion of them are open pit types (33%) having no latrines floor (32%) and wall (75%). More than half of the child-bearing mothers have poor knowledge therefore they directly through the feces outside and did not wash hand properly after cleaning the defecated children and toilets/potty. Many of them do not know that they should wash hand before breast feeding (50%), prior to food preparation (77%), after cleaning of animals (79%) and after any activity (97%). Women of Gaibanda district was the better user of flash toilet and good habit of washing hand after toilet use. Better disposal of domestic waste was observed among the women of Kurigram District. In all respect women of Rangpur was mediocre in hygiene practice. Except disposal of children feces and hand washing before eating significant regional variations were found in type of toilet used, disposal of domestic waste, hand washing before food preparation, hand washing before feeding their child, after toilet use, after cleaning toilet of child and after cleaning the animal.

Conclusion: More awareness program and subsidy policy should be taken for improving sanitation and hygiene with keeping in mind the regional variations in hygiene practice. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Reforming Inclusive Quality Educational System for a Sustainable Glocal Learning-a Countering Paradigm to the Massive Backward Curriculum and Instruction Pedagogies

M. Ziad Hamdan

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 60-84
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2021/v34i430324

Humans are different individuals by nature and have diverse personality traits, cognitive powers, thinking speeds, timelines, and live spaces for thinking, searching, and learning. Despite this psycho-educational logical approved fact, massive curriculum pedagogies are observed throughout hundreds of years of the Common Era. The Author believes ‘putting "whole" students or massive groups together in one large 'container' hall for one-way instruction with no regard to their understanding powers is in itself non-educating, non-dignifying and a gross violation of human rights and values. To understand the status quo of this everlasting schooling problem and to offer effective solutions for learning generations in the Info Digital Age; the descriptive ‘Causal Comparative/ Ex Post Facto techniques and the 'Action developmental' method’ were used. While the Author searched the accumulated massive groups’ literature since the Greek Sophists 500 BCE up to the period of Guttenberg large paper printing and the educational setbacks of the Factory Educational Model, coupled with the implications and possibilities of ICTs' integrations for reforming the concepts and methodologies of schooling and higher education. The Author concluded the article by offering a reforming paradigm "Inclusive Quality Education System for a Sustainable Glocal Learning." This 'system', when applied according to proposed descriptions and criteria, will lead to profound progressive changes, such as paradigms of learners-centered-growth, interests and hobbies needs; ICTs' non-directive 'Blend-Digit' pedagogies; learner self and collaborative peer groups; learners' torturing one other(s); and blended school personnel, e.g., Teachers and support services who are indirect leaning guide counselors and standby collaborators.