Open Access Short Research Article

The Effects of Transfer of Learning and Literacy: An Analysis of Graffiti and Sgraffitiin the City of Johannesburg

Farai Chinangure, Lawrence Mapaire

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430178

The study examined the social effects of graffiti as pieces of writing or drawings scribbled, scratched or sprayed on surfaces of public toilets or bus termini. The study followed a qualitative exploratory design in which the researchers observed the messages expressed in the graffiti and conducted a discourse analysis on their effects on the moral fabric of society. Themes and perceptions towards some societal ills emerged from the analysis. The main aim of the study was thus to unravel the possible social issues expressed through this art of graffiti and sgraffitti. A purposive total sample size of 10 public toilets and bus termini was used for the study. Among the major findings of this study was the view that the messages conveyed through the graffiti and sgraffitti expressed a disapproval and distaste of such anti-social acts as promiscuity, prostitution and crime that are prevalent in the city of Johannesburg and its environs. In addition, gender based violence, stereotypes prejudices and stigmas against women, homosexuality and HIV/AIDS were among the dominant graffiti and sgrafitto messages. The study concluded that although graffiti and sgraffitti artists tend to deform and deface some public utilities, their call for normative social behaviour in society shows that there is a need to deconstruct a number of societal biases such as gender biases, sex, sexual orientation, stigmas, stereotypes and other prejudices associated with the diverse nature of the human species. The recommendation made by this study is that there is a dire need for advocacy by social workers, the city fathers, the metro police division and other human rights organisations to deconstruct and demystify certain human practices, acts and mind sets.

Open Access Short Research Article

Contemporary Teaching-Learning Practices: Implementation and Challenges of Student-Centered Learning Approach in Higher Education of Ethiopia

Birhanu Moges

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430181

Student-centered learning approach is a key factor which focuses on students’ learning experiences and development, well-being and retention so that higher educational learning is delivered in ways that are demonstrably in the students’ best interests. In the teacher-centered approach to teaching, most of the class time is spent with the teacher lecturing and the student watching, listening and taking notes. The present study aimed to explore students’ and instructors’ perception, practices and challenges in implementing SCL. The study employed descriptive survey design by combining quantitative and qualitative approach to collect, process, analyzes and presents the data. A total of 12 instructors and 66 students of the second and third year psychology students have participated in the study through availability and purposive sampling technique. The instruments were questionnaire, classroom observation and un-structured interviews were conducted. Accordingly, the findings indicated that the teaching practices in implementing student-centered learning approach were not as expected. The result also showed that instructors had positive attitude toward the SCL, regarding several aspects such as providing the benefits to both students and instructors, being effective for teaching, creating close relationship and establishing active classroom environment. In the end, instructors also agreed that student-centered instruction will improve the ability of the students to learn the courses. Due to different challenges, most of the students were less interested to learn by SCL, such as sense of fear, lack of interest and confidence. The study further found that the lack of classroom facilities and conditions, large class size, inadequate teachers training, tendency of focusing on teacher-centered approach and limited ability to implement were the challenges of implementing. Finally, it is recommended that responsible bodies rearrange the facilities and conditions necessary inputs for the effective implantation of SCL. To minimize the challenges, instructors should create different techniques to make students participants in teaching-learning process.

Open Access Opinion Article

Science and Technology Policy for Nigeria's Development Planning

Sunday Idowu Oladeji, Abiodun Adewale Adegboye

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430182

Science & Technology (S&T) is recognised in intellectual discourse and public policymaking as strategic for development in contemporary times. The study assesses development planning experience in Nigeria and attempts to make a case for the integration of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policy within the overall framework of national development planning. Content analyses of the development plan documents were made alongside exposition on theoretical perspectives on S&T for growth and development. The framework leads to some implications for Nigeria's development plan. A survey of the theoretical perspectives on the interrelations between STI and national development is also undertaken. As Science & Technology planning is grossly lacking in Nigeria’s development planning, the paper prescribes principles for effective interfacing of STI policy with national development plans. It draws attention to the essence of regular exchange of information between the sectors of Nigeria's economy and the Ministry of Science & Technology and the National Planning Commission, both at construction and implementation of plans. Development planning in Nigeria will serve the better if it is comprehensive and detailed to include S&T policy and programme. The regimes of ad-hoc/disintegrated sectoral reforms must no longer be allowed to rob the economy of desired growth and development. While the planning of STI activities is of critical importance, the paper seems the first to call    attention to the significance of integrating STI with the overall framework of national planning in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Formative Evaluation Modes on Learning Outcomes among Senior Secondary Agricultural Science Students in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

J. T. Ekanem, E. B. Inyang, I. M. Umoh

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430177

This study examined the effect of formative evaluation modes on secondary school agricultural science students’ learning outcomes in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It was a pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental/control group research that relied on multi-stage sampling technique in the selection of respondents. Five (5) instruments developed and validated by the researchers were used to generate data from 200 SS11 students exposed to Agricultural science and farming techniques in secondary schools. Collected data were analysed using mean scores and standard deviation as well as Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at .01 level of significance. Formative evaluation modes with feedback and remediation, which enabled respondents, develop good study habit and positive interpersonal relationship with their instructors and peers have proved to be very effective in the assessment and improvement of students’ learning outcomes. The improvements in respondents’ performances were observed in both achievements in and attitude to learning Agricultural science. It could thus be concluded from this study that formative evaluation modes with feedback and remediation are effective in improving farmers’ achievement in and their attitude to learning more about Agricultural science. Formative evaluation modes with feedback and remediation enabled young farmers to engage in consistent studying. It allowed the farmers to be exposed to different formative evaluation techniques such as peer assessment, projects, group assignment instead of the usually test and individual assignment that they were used to. Need for Agricultural science instructors to acquire necessary skills in the development of various formative evaluation modes/techniques needed for the assessment of the cognitive and affective domains of the young farmers was raised. Such techniques include written quiz, end-of-lesson assessment, peer assessment, individualized task, project, group assignment, attitudinal scales, and socio-metric scale among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Achievement Motivation as Predictor of Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary School Student in Mathematics Edo State, Nigeria

Okotie Stella Erhuvwu, Florence T. Adeyemi

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430179

The study examined the achievement motivation as predictor of academic achievement among Senior Secondary School II students in Edo State, Nigeria. The sample of the study consisted of 698 students who were randomly sampled from the population of 27,937 students in pubic secondary school II students in Edo Sate. The sample size was 2.5% of the entire population, which was drawn, using the multi-stage sampling technique. There are eighteen Local Government Areas in Edo State, divided into three (3) senatorial  districts - Edo North (5 local Government Areas); Edo Central (6 Local Government Areas); Edo South (7 Local Government Areas).  Both independent and dependent variables were measured with relevant standardized instruments.  To guide the study, three (3) research questions were raised and a null hypothesis was formulated.  Data collected were analyzed using Pearson r correlation coefficient and Stepwise multiple regression statistical techniques. The results showed that achievement motivation predicted students’ academic achievement in Mathematic. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that achievement motivation should b e enhanced using appropriate psychometric strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Revisiting the Dichotomy between Abusive Supervision and Work Performance of Subordinates in Private Organizations in Kenya: An Empirical Search for Correspondence between Theory and Practice

Ssemugenyi Fred, Amboka Asumwa Agustine, Kazibwe Sophia

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430180

This systematic and empirical review attempted to expand the frontiers of knowledge on abusive supervision against employee performance using private sector as a case sample. Using no mediating model between X and Y, the study focused on the assumed and observable linearity between the two variables under investigation whilst using available quantitative and qualitative data as point of reference. Hypothetically, it is assumed that, abusive supervision has a negative correlation with employee performance across organization. This kind of reasoning is guided by observable longitudinal data, feelings and opinions drawn from various categories of individuals over time. Important to note, is the fact that, these observations are in conflict with many research works and reports whose conclusions seem to suggest that abusive supervision has a direct positive causal impact on employee performance. This empirical review is borne out of this contradiction as an attempt to contribute to the ongoing debate and systematically direct reasoning to the desired end. A statistically selected sample of 80 respondents from 101 total population was drawn from 10 private organizations across Kenya for quantitative data and a team of key informants (10) one from each organization was selected for interviews. A mixed method approach was adopted which gave birth to descriptive statistics and thematic approach for analysis. A casual path linking the supervisor mindfulness, supervisor hostility, supervisor attitudes and organizational leadership structures was established. Supervisor hostility and attitudes negatively affected employee performance in the private sector organizations whilst supervisor mindfulness and organizational leadership structures positively affected employee performance in the same context. Important to note is that, although the associations between perceptions of abusive supervision and employee performance appear to be universally negative, the magnitude of the relationship between perceptions of abusive supervision and employee performance varies according to the study design, context, culture and timing.  Great need is sought to continuously harmonize the synergy between theory and practice for the future of the practitioners rests entirely on this evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intentions and Motivations of Entrepreneurship towards Sahid Institute of Tourism Students Who are Entrepreneurs

Maryetti ., Darmawan Damanik, Marya Yenny, F. X. Setiyo Wibowo

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430183

Aims: Knowing the intentions and motivations that affect students in doing entrepreneurship during college.

Study Design: Descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: Sahid Institute of Tourism, Pondok Cabe, Tangerang, between February 2018 and July 2018.

Methodology: The resource persons were students of Sahid Institute of Tourism who already had businesses and numbered 18 people, consisting of 11 men and 7 women, with an average age of 21-29 years, from the hotels department of 12 persons and from tourism management majors 2 persons. They are 12 entrepreneurs in the food and beverage sector, 2 people in the entertainment sector, 1 person is an entrepreneur in the field of clothing. 2 persons in the field of tourist travel services and 1 person in the field of catfish seedlings. The research method used was the survey method using a questionnaire containing closed questions, then recapitulated and described and linked using the theory used. Questionnaire distributed online.

Results: Intentions that affect students to run a business during college is achieving better results than before, as many as 77.8% of respondents who choose Achievement Needs. Whereas for Subjective Norm, respondents prefer family roles are 50%. Furthermore, in Self Efficacy, the most influential factor is self confidence, which is as much as 77.8% of respondents who choose. While for the demography factor, respondents prefer experience (family business background) and for the entrepreneurial intention factor, the line of business rather than working for others is the factor considered most influential by students in running their businesses. Motivation that encourages students to run a business during college is to have their own business to motivate ambition for freedom, as many as 77.8% of respondents who choose, while for self-realization motivation is to implement ideas / innovate, which is 66.7% of respondents who choose. And the motivation for pushing factors is to get better income, which is 100%.

Conclusion: Linked to Theory Push and Pull Factors which states that "Push" Entrepreneurs are those who are dissatisfied with their positions, for reasons unrelated to their entrepreneurial characteristics, pushes them to start a venture. "Pull" entrepreneurs are those who are lured by their new venture idea and initiate venture activity because of the attractiveness of the business idea and its personal implications, so student entrepreneurs at Sahid Institute of Tourism are classified as 'Pull' entrepreneurs and according to Muller's research (1995) , reveals that "pull" entrepreneurs are more successful than "push" entrepreneurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Factor Analysis Procedures to Validate Score Reporting Practice of Large Scale Examinations: Establishing the Baseline

Molefhe Mogapi

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430184

Performance of candidates in large scale examinations is often reported using a composite score that represents an aggregation of several components of a subject. The components are meant to reflect the fact that subjects are made up of different topics or modalities and each modality is assessed by means of a subset of items. The subsets of items measure a candidates’ knowledge with respect to the specific domain. However, more often than not, the construct validity or psychometric independence of each specific domain has not been empirically defined although the domain has intuitive meaning. Factor analysis can be used to make sure that the score reporting practice as indicated by the number of domains is supported by the underlying factor structure. In this paper, Social Studies and Science final examinations test scores were used as dependent variables to extract underlying dimensions.  The co-variance matrix for each of the two subjects was submitted to a principal component analysis with Varimax rotation to produce factor loading. The results indicated a unidimensional factor structure for Social Studies and a three component model for Science. The findings were used to evaluate the adopted score reporting structure for each of the two subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Associations between the Wellbeing Process and Academic Outcomes

Andrew P. Smith, Kirsty L. Firman

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430185

Background: The Student Wellbeing Process Questionnaire (Student WPQ) has been used to identify predictors of both positive and negative wellbeing. These variables can now be used to investigate whether different aspects of the wellbeing process are associated with academic outcomes.

Aims: The wellbeing process involves established predictors such as exposure to stressors, negative coping, social support, positive personality, and conscientiousness. The wellbeing outcomes are positive (e.g. happiness, positive affect, and life satisfaction), and negative (e.g. stress, anxiety and depression). The aim was to examine associations between these variables and academic outcomes (Grade Point Average [GPA]; perceived efficiency; perceived course stress, and perceived workload).

Methodology:  The research described in this paper was carried out with the approval of the ethics committee, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, and the informed consent of the participants (1296 psychology undergraduates; 89.4% female; 49.7% year 1; mean age 19.5 years). An online survey was carried out and this included the Student WPQ and academic outcomes. A MANOVA was conducted to examine associations between the wellbeing process variables and the academic outcomes.

Results: The main factor associated with the academic outcomes was conscientiousness. Those in the high conscientiousness category had higher GPA sores, reported greater efficiency and higher course stress and workload. GPA scores were also associated with student stressors, with those in the high stress category having lower GPA scores. Greater efficiency was associated with higher scores for positive wellbeing and social support, and lower negative coping. Higher course stress was associated with higher scores for exposure to stressors, negative coping and negative wellbeing. Higher negative wellbeing was also associated with higher perceived workload.

Conclusion: Conscientiousness is the best predictor of academic outcomes. Other components of the wellbeing process have selective effects on academic outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Field Trip and Peer Tutoring Instructional Strategies on Students’ Science Process Skills Acquistion in Basic Science and Technology in Junior Secondary Schools in Osun State

Simeon Olayinka Olajide

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430186

The study investigated the effects of field trip and peer tutoring instructional strategies (as against the conventional method of teaching) on secondary school students’ science process skills (observation, classification, communication, measurement, inference and prediction) acquisition in Basic Science and Technology in Junior Secondary Schools (JSS) in Osun State. These were with a view to provide information on usability of the strategies to enhance the students’ development of science process skills through Basic Science and Technology lesson in Osun State classrooms. The study employed the pretest, post-test control group quasi experimental research design. The population for the study comprised all junior secondary school students in Osun State. The study sample consisted of 315 Junior Secondary II (JS II) students in nine intact classes selected from nine schools using simple random sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was Science Process Skills Performance Test (SPSPT). Data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The results of the study showed that there was significant effect of the treatment (use of field trip and peer tutoring) on science process skills of secondary school students as follow: Observation (F=1.030, p<0.05), classification (F=3.529, p<.05), communication (F=1.326, p<0.05), measurement (F=6.623, p<0.05), inference (F=12.310, p<0.05) and prediction (F=21.210, p<0.05); with peer tutoring leading in observation, classification, communication and measurement skills of students in Basic Science and Technology with x̄=30.6000, x̄=31.3429, x̄=24.9429 and x̄=25.3714 while students exposed to field trip strategy, exhibited higher students’ inference and prediction skills in Basic Science and Technology with x̄=22.9714 and x̄=27.4847 respectively. The study concluded that field trip and peer tutoring instructional strategies are effective and innovative teaching methods in improving students’ science process skills acquisition in Basic Science and Technology in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Metacognitive Awareness and Reflective Learning of Medical Students at the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University

Tahany Ahmed Mesbah, Rabab Abdel Raoof Abed, Amira Salem Al-Sagheer, Mona Sayed Ghaly

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430187

Aim: To examine the relationship between reflective thinking and metacognitive awareness to help medical students to be independent learners who can control their learning and improve their professional performance.

Study Design: It is a cross-sectional correlational study.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine-Suez Canal University in August 2018.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional correlational study; the study population included the undergraduate medical students in all study years at the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University. The sample was 264 randomly selected students by using a cluster sampling technique. The instruments that were used for data collection were the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) to measure students’ metacognitive awareness levels, Reflection-in-Learning Scale (RLS) to measure the students’ reflective learning levels.

Results: The descriptive statistics of both MAI and RLS total scores of students in the six study years revealed that students have mean total MAI total scores = 178 ± 26 and have mean total RLS total scores = 60 ± 13.

The Spearman's correlation between the metacognitive awareness and the reflective learning skills of medical students revealed that there was a statistically significant high positive correlation between the metacognitive awareness and the reflection in the learning of FOM-SCU students         (p= 0.699, p-value<0.0001).

Multiple regression analysis revealed that the weighted combination of the predictor variables explained approximately 50% of the variance of reflection in learning.

Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that the students at the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University have fair to good metacognitive awareness and partial to ample reflective abilities. There is a significantly high positive relationship between metacognitive awareness and the reflective learning skills of medical students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contraceptive Use among Senior Secondary School Students in Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Irene Ifeyinwa Eze, Chinwe Angela Elechi, Eyiuche Anulika Elohi, Ancilla Kate Umeobieri

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430188

Aims: To determine the use of contraceptives among senior secondary school students in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi State.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional study design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in public secondary schools in Abakaliki metropolis, Ebonyi Nigeria, for a duration of six months

Methodology: A two-stage sampling method was used to select 400 students from 6 out of 18 public secondary schools in Abakaliki metropolis. Information was obtained using a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Chi square test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis and level of statistical significance was determined by p value of <0.05.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 17.4±2.3 years and majority (51.5%) were females. More than one fifth (21.5%) have been exposed to sexual intercourse. Majority of the respondents (61.8%) were aware of contraceptives. The major sources of information were school lessons (46.0%) and health workers (40.8%). The contraceptives mostly known included male condom (42.0%), female condom (22.3%) and natural methods (15.3%). Out of the 400 respondents, a small proportion (8.5%) have ever used any method of contraception, and the male condom, was the most used method (82%). Logistic regression showed predictors of contraceptive use to include being <18 years (AOR=0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), being male (AOR=6.0, 95% CI: 2.0-17.7) and being in senior secondary three class (AOR=0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6).

Conclusion: Only a small proportion of the respondents who were sexually active used any method of contraception. With school lectures as the main source of information on contraception, there is need for more comprehensive sexuality education to be included in the school curriculum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction Patterns among International Class Students and Regular Class Students in Yayasan Pendidikan Shafiyyatul Amaliyyah Medan, Indonesia

Addaratul Hasanah, Rizabuana Ismail, Nurman Achmad, Sismudjito ., Ria Manurung

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2019/v32i430189

Education system which using international class system and regular class system inflict many types of problems and issues that arise. The problems that arise create the interaction patterns that frequently form a deficient interaction patterns. This research aims to know how the interaction patterns which occur in international class and regular class in High School of Yayasan Pendidikan Shafiyyatul Amaliyyah and how to overcome the occurrence the social jealousy among them. This research use qualitative research with descriptive approach. The subjects of the research are International class students, and regular class students, teacher, foundation manager as the main information source. The findings show that there are differences in interactions that occur between regular and international class students. The school form interaction with incorporate the students through activities and programs at school and generate the students in International  Class and Regular Class be more effectual to interaction thus the social jealousy among them would be disappear, therefore the interaction which occur be more intense and effective.