Open Access Commentary

Developing Models for African Tertiary Education’s Response to COVID-19 Pandemic and Other Emergencies: Adapting Existing Systems, Infrastructure and Practices for Online Teaching

Joshua Owolabi, Matt Ames, Kiuna Anthony, Clement Muhire, Erfan Mojaddam, Abebe Bekele

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 59-73
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1030265

It is very important to address the need to adapt the existing structure to meet the demands of the emergency situation that has been placed on tertiary institutions globally and with specific emphasis on the African institutions. In the face of the emergency situations such as the one that has been created by the global pandemic covid-19; it is impractical to start building de novo systems to address this challenge. Hence, the practical and logical response to these will simply be to reposition the existing systems in ways that they can be used to achieve optimal results. This paper is an attempt to provide guidance and models for African tertiary institutions in the ongoing attempts to achieve such adaptations with optimum results. One of the realities and effects of the covid-19 is implementation of the social distancing policy and practices in many countries of the world, consequently many schools have either started running virtually or planning to do the same. What this would imply for many African institutions whose curricula are conventional and significantly premised on learning theories that make use of contact instructional methods such as lectures, seminars, group discussions and demonstrations among others would be confronted with the need to transition to the online virtual environment which has a different approach to teaching and learning. There will also be a need to align the new methods of teaching to the learning theories that support the curriculum. Since it would be impractical to develop new curricula immediately, the new methods would rather have to be aligned with the existing curricula. This has to be most properly done as there is the tendency to create misalignment between curricular philosophies and implementation and this would most likely influence the learning and program outcomes. Adaptation is therefore very crucial. Furthermore, while the current scenario has been caused by the covid-19 this guide, the currently proposed models and methods might be useful and applicable in other emergency situations. In order to achieve effective adaptation, we believe that four major factors should be given critical consideration. These include: [1]. Pedagogies and Resources [2]. Instructional Design Adaptation for Online Teaching [3]. Infrastructure: LMS, ICT, System and Connectivity [4]. Implementation and sustainability. This article provides guidance and models for proper adaptations in light of these.

Open Access Original Research Article

Information Needs of Teachers in Second Cycle Institutions in Ghana: A Case of the Lower-Manya Krobo Municipality

Harriet Fosua Attafuah, Harry Akussah, George Tesilimi Banji

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1030260

This paper seeks to examine the information needs of teachers in second cycle institutions in the Lower Manya Krobo Municipality in Ghana. It adopted the mixed method approach with a population of three hundred and three (303). Questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data for the study.  The quantitative data was analysed using IBM SPSS Version 22.0 and the qualitative data was also analysed thematically. The study discovered that second cycle institution teachers need information for teaching, learning and for research. Also, teachers rely on information from several sources to plan their lessons, write their teaching notes and update themselves on the subject matter of what they teach. Considering the role teachers play in the lives of students and the community as a whole, they need relevant information which must be timely, accurate and reliable. Therefore, the government, Ministry of Education (MOE), Ghana Education Service (GES), Heads of second cycle schools, and all Stakeholders are to ensure that proper information as well as information sources are made available to them to make the process of imparting knowledge more efficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vote-buying Enterprise and Voting Behaviour among Electorate: Evidence from Southern Nigeria

Akinde Sunday Israel, Micah, Damilola John

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1030258

This paper specifically reviews activities of political parties in terms of voters’ inducement during elections period in Nigeria. The paper deconstructs voters’ inducement as political economy created to attract electorates purposely to swing votes to benefit political party. The paper relied on secondary data retrieved through content analysis. It was evidently established that political parties in Nigeria especially the case in Edo, Ondo and Ekiti State, discretely engaged in voters’ inducement which come in the form of financial and material gifts. Financial gift was often distributed during voting period such that eligible voters were whisked and wooed by parties’ agents to swing votes. Some willing voters negotiated depending on the highest bidders. Yet some voters grabbed the opportunity to create economy for themselves such that they invested the fund in small scale business and ventures to survive. Besides, mega political parties with robust financial elbow were fingered as major perpetrators of voters’ inducement. Some voters apparently were overshadowed by the inducement due to tight economic condition and poverty. This paper recommends voters’ education to enlighten electorates and expose the consequence. The role of the media, church, mosque and schools is indispensable in this situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nursing Students’ First Clinical Experience with a Dying Patient or the Dead: A Phenomenological Study

Isaac Nyarko Kwakye, James Antwi, Cynthia Essel, Prince Appiah Yeboah

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 25-39
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1030262

Aim: The aim of the study was to explore nursing students’ first clinical experience with a dying patient or the dead.

Study Design: The study employed a qualitative case study design involving six students, homogenous in nature and purposively selected from the nursing department of a private university in Accra. We used in-depth interviews to solicit for lived experiences of the participants and the field data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis technique.

Results: Seven themes emerged from the analysis; reasons for choosing nursing as a profession, emotional and psychological effects, coping strategies, preparation of the student before clinical placement, access to counselling and future thoughts about nursing. Productive and unproductive forces are used to illustrate the experiences of the students. The results showed that nursing students were inadequately prepared for their first clinical practice and experienced varied negative emotional and psychological effects such as fear and stress. Some of the students were unable to cope with their experiences and as a result wanted to quit the training while others were able to accept the situation due to their personal disposition.

Conclusion: The authors recommend that students should be given adequate orientation or preparation before clinical placement and where possible, counselling services should be made available to them before, during and after their clinical placement both at the hospital and in the school.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation of Class Size on Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Secondary Schools (A Case Study of Chikun Local Government Area) of Kaduna State, Nigeria

B. Y. Afolabi, L. B. Wakili, A. O. Afolabi, N. E. Onwuegbunam, A. A. Ademuwagun

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 40-52
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1030263

The correlation between class size and mathematics learning by students has been a subject of research for years. This work studied the effects of class size on the teaching and learning of mathematics in junior secondary schools in Chikun Local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 100 students and 20 mathematics teachers randomly selected from the population. Questionnaires were administered to respondents for data collection after reliability and validation techniques were applied on the scales. The data were analysed in percentages and means. Pearson correlation analysis was applied on the variables in order to ascertain the level of correlation. It was found that class size affects class control, students’ interest and attention and the time expended in dealing with disciplinary issues in a mathematics class. It is recommended that future research be conducted that will collaborate the importance of class size on students’ learning process and achievement. The recommendations of the National Policy on Education (NPE) regarding student-teacher ratio should be implemented and teachers should be properly trained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Societal Expectations and Well-being of Academics: Views from University Lecturers in Ghana

Dudley W. Ofori, Jo Bell

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 74-84
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1030266

Background: The study aimed to investigate how societal expectation on educational accomplishments can affect workplace well-being of university lecturers. University education is seen by society as the highest level of educational accomplishment in a person’s life and people with such accomplishments are often held in higher esteem by society. In Ghana, this expectation puts pressure on lecturers who are known to have attained higher educational accomplishments.

Methods: The study used a qualitative research approach to solicit views from 18 public university lecturers in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenology Approach (IPA) for data analysis was used to interpret the opinions of lecturers about what society expects of them, how that affects their well-being at work and shifts that are needed to address those expectations.

Results: The study found that society indeed expects a lot from university lecturers (core university functions and other cultural and economic issues). Societal expectations have both positive and negative effects on the well-being of lecturers. Findings show that respect that lecturers receive from society provides leverage for positive well-being, while financial pressures placed on them tend to create emotional stresses which impact negatively on their well-being.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to examine the experiences of well-being amongst university academics in Ghana. Results suggest that how the role of university academics is perceived by society can create pressures which affect their well-being negatively. This study highlights the importance of these findings and their impact on well-being. It shows that societal expectations are linked to sociocultural beliefs and economic factors in a developing country context. The authors recommend a mind-set shift amongst society and academics to bring expectations from both sides closer together; through education; engaging community talks on the pressures of societal expectations and demands to create awareness, and observing cultural beliefs that impact the understanding of well-being issues. These initiatives could potentially reduce the pressure of unrealistic expectations on academics and other “knowledge workers”.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of the Escalating Cost of Tuition in Higher Education in the United States

Solomon A. Boateng

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 53-58
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1030264

Higher education has always been a fundamental cornerstone for development and prosperity in the United States. It is incumbent upon the government and other stakeholders to formulate policies to ensure our institutions of higher education are well resourced and funded to enable economic development. The unprecedented price hikes in tuition at universities and colleges, coupled with high student loan interest rate has compelled a lot of students to drop out of college [1]. Majority of the dropouts are now resorting to drug sale and other nefarious activities in order to sustain their lives. The current pandemic has put a huge strain on the American economy with over a million death and unemployment is at all-time high. This article critically examines the severity of insufficient funding for higher education and the adverse impact of the escalating tuition fees. To regulate the rising tuition fees, suggestions are made with reference to sustainability of strategies and policies to stem this phenomenon.