Open Access Case study

Effect of Teachers and Students Relationships on the Academic Engagement of Students: A Qualitative Case Study

Birhanu Moges Alemu, Dereje Adefris Woldetsadik

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 48-62
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130271

This research examined the effect of teacher and student relationships on the academic engagement of students. The research approach used was the qualitative study employing the interpretive research paradigm which falls in the case study design. The subjects of the study were eight teachers and four students of Adama Science and Technology University. The study used purposive sampling. It employed qualitative data collection tools: interview guides, a focus group discussion guide and observation. The resulting analysis and interpretation provided a description of major themes that developed regarding strong teacher- student relationships, as well as, specific components to the interactions considered essential for the student’s learning environment. Identifying specific factors associated with teacher-student interactions could provide valuable information to an educational learning community. The findings of the study indicated that the factor that affects teachers’ motivational factors in student relationships were the work environment and students’ disciplinary problems. The results showed that the instructors are motivated to teach nevertheless the resources, environment, theories of motivation and goals set influence the quality of the teaching-learning process. The study concluded that these factors should be upheld. Consequently, it is recommended that higher education should improve the working environment and working conditions in the university.

Open Access Case study

Enquiry into the Online Class Intervention during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case at Shari Higher Secondary School, Paro, Bhutan

Bak Bir Rai

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 155-162
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130280

This paper is a first attempt to study the challenges of online teaching, learning and assessment for teachers and students during the COVID-19 school closure, at Shari Higher Secondary School, Paro. The intervention was on the adoption of online learning as a response to COVID-19, mode of learning presumed as alternative-that need reconsideration and redressing students’ attitudes to this mode of learning. The study was a mixed method approach (both qualitative and quantitative) in nature and used purposive sampling. Data were collected from the students who were actively participating in online classes and all the teachers. The quantitative data was collected using the survey questionnaires as tool to understand the status of online learning in the school. The qualitative study encapsulated the teachers and students perceptions towards the online teaching learning in the school and was collected through open ended questions. Responses from the survey were analyzed using SPSS- descriptive and correlation. The study revealed that for an effective delivery of online teaching, learning and assessment, the mode of instruction needs to be altered, prioritized curriculum needs to be adopted, teachers need to make adjustments in teaching strategies, and students have to be more responsible.

Open Access Short communication

An Implementation of Subject Policy is a Key to Effective Teaching and Learning: A Case Study of Siswati Language

Jozi Joseph Thwala

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 163-169
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130281

The objectives of this article are to set out the process and key areas for Siswati Subject Policy (SSP). Siswati is one of the languages in the Republic of South Africa that is granted the official status in terms of Section 6 of the Constitution. It is learned, taught and spoken at various provinces. The subject policy focuses on the development and management of the language from the theoretical understanding of its concepts to their practical stance. The policy is also expected to reinforce the government’s responsibilities of establishing the language infrastructures, providing equitable access to it and, enhancing language participation. The language subject policy covers all aspects of micro and macro linguistics, literature and onomastics. It covers teaching and learning, research, administration and community engagement. It is, however, more specific to focus on language in society and society in language, approaches and analytic strategies of the language as well as social interaction.  

Open Access Minireview Article

Absenteeism: Its Causes and Effects in Bhutanese Context

Dhan Singh Tamang

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 78-92
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130274

Aims: To understand the reason of absenteeism and its causes and effect in Bhutanese context.

Study Design: Qualitative research design

Place and Duration of study: It was conducted in Wangchu Middle Secondary School, Chhukha Bhutan and it took five years.

Methodology: Data were collected from almost 120 students of classes IX and X including 10 parents and 10 teachers. Data were analyzed using direct content analysis technique. Informal conversation was also arranged for better understanding of the situation of students, teachers and parents.

Findings: The analysis of the data found out more than three areas for reconsideration.

  • The curriculum thinning and proper selection of topics to be done.
  • Basis for selection of teachers for undergoing training, at the first place, in College of Education should be done on attitude and aptitude not on marks obtained.
  • Provide ample avenues for young parents to get enough awareness programs in school which should train them in psychology and values.

Conclusion: This study examined all the perspective put forward by students, teachers and parents. Based on the analysis of the data three measures are suggested for stakeholders. These measures are Proper selection of topics in curriculum and thinning, revamping of selection of teachers and creation of avenues for parents to get awareness programs in schools.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hashtag Construction as Product of Symbolic Convergence: Berger and Luckmann’s Approach

Rewindinar ., Pinckey Triputra, Frengki Napitupulu

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130267

Social media refers to technology in which organizations and individuals interact with their audiences. Organizations and individuals interact through messages that each can produce. On the Twitter platform, conversation occurs through its special characteristic, namely the hashtag symbol. This interaction is interestingly analyzed through Berger and Luckmann's view that interpersonal social interaction is a social construction of reality. A view through this objective, symbolic, and subjective reality can then be a way for public relations to overcome the initial stage of a crisis. This research aimed to explore symbolic convergence process on Twitter hashtags in the construction of the reality of Berger and Luckmann as a mechanism for crisis communication management. This research used a constructivist paradigm with a netnographic method. The interactions observed at #BUMNdukungUMKM on August 16, 2020, were then analyzed with the Berger and Luckmann social constructionist approach. The results of this research are able to answer the research objectives where symbolic convergence is a process in social construction of reality. Hashtags are dynamic processes that can lead to social discourses. Hashtag construction is product of symbolic convergence on social media as a mechanism for crisis management.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Gender, Age and Religion in Explaining the Variations in Selected Sexual Experiences of University Teacher-Trainees in Uganda and Tanzania

Loyce Kiiza Kobusingye, Grace Milly Kibanja

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130268

After a realisation that there are scanty studies conducted on university teachers trainees’ sexual experiences and how these experiences are shaped by gender, age and religion, this study set out to conduct survey on final/third year university teacher-trainees in two selected teacher training university colleges, one in Uganda and another in Tanzania, with the purpose of examining the role of gender, age and religion in explaining the variations in age of first sexual experience and number of both past and current sexual partners among the university teacher-trainees. The purely quantitative study was conducted on a population of 557 teacher-trainees who were selected that the students studied were drawn from a sample taken from a population using systematic random sampling. The teacher-trainees were final/third year students at both Makerere University’s College of Education and External Studies (MUK) and University of Dar es Salaam’s Constituent College of Education known as Dar es Salaam University College of Education (UDSM).

The observed scores and resultant variations revealed that the variation in age of first sexual experience among male and female and male teacher trainees was non-significant while the variation in number of both past and current sexual partners among the two genders was significant. The variation in age of first sexual experience among the age groups was significant while the variation in number of both past and current sexual partners among the existing age groups was non-significant. The variation in age of first sexual experience, number of past and current sexual partners among the existing religions was non-significant all through. Basing on these findings therefore, it is recommended that sex education and policies be introduced in high institutions of learning while stressing education on contraception and messages about sex. Religious leaders too should participate in teaching against behaviours that lead to consequences of early sex debut and existence of concurrent multiple sexual partners among young people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Digital Tourism Marketing 4.0 Collaborative Strategy for Banggai Brothers Area, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Rully Anggi Akbar, Tri Kuntoro Priyambodo, Hendrie Adji Kusworo, Chafid Fandeli

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 25-38
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130269

Aims: This study aims to analyze the obstacles in digital tourism marketing in The Banggai brothers area (Banggai Luwuk, Banggai Islands, Banggai Laut), Central Sulawesi, to analyze the digital marketing strategies that have been applied and to formulate an effective collaborative digital tourism marketing strategy that can be used, and applied to the Banggai brothers in the future.

Study Design: This research study design is a qualitative study

Place and Duration of Study: This research was conducted in the Banggai brothers (Banggai Luwuk, Banggai Islands, Banggai Laut) Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, in February - June 2020. Methodology: This qualitative research method uses a case study. Collecting data through interviews and direct observation with regional tourism offices, destination management, local communities, and visitors to tourism objects in the Banggai brothers. Data analysis using Grounded Analysis (Reduction, Display, and Drawing Conclusion / Verification).

Results: The result of this research is The dominant problem is the limited human resources in tourism.

Conclusion: The marketing strategy plan aimed at the Banggai Brothers area is Digital collaboration tourism, namely; Planning phase using a collaborative market system. The implication of this research can help create a collaborative tourism marketing strategy 4.0 based on internet use, especially social media, for the Banggai area and destinations throughout Indonesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teachers’ Attributions and Intervention Strategies for Students’ Classroom Misbehaviours: Evidence from Senior High Schools in Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem Municipality

Victoria Aba Mensah, Mark, Owusu Amponsah, Bakari Yusif Dramanu

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 39-47
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130270



The study explored teachers’ attributions in addressing misbehaviour of students in the classroom. To achieve this, a descriptive survey was adopted through the use of quantitative approach. A sample size of 140 teachers was selected for the study using cluster sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to elicit responses from the selected teachers. Inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the research questions. The findings from the study revealed that generally, teachers in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abirem Municipality attribute students’ disruptive behaviours to blame and intentionality of the students. Again, in the quest for managing these attributed behaviours, supportive measures were identified by the teachers to be very effective. It was recommended that teachers’ beliefs about causality with reference to student misbehaviour be improved by training teachers to embrace controllable as opposed to non-controllable attributions. Teachers who might otherwise embrace unsupportive interventions may be more open to implementing research-based interventions for students who exhibit problem behaviour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activities Used in Improving College Retention and Graduation: A Project Focused on Internships, Faculty-Mentoring and Other Career Development Activities

Joel Robinson, Mariah Simplicio, Jenna Dole, Kristine Denman, Elsa Castillo, Tariq Khraishi, Graham White

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 63-77
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130273

The University of New Mexico (UNM) embarked on a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to engage in activities that are believed to support retention and graduation of STEM students (specifically engineering and computer science students). The project focused on the following activities: internships, faculty-mentoring and other career development activities such as conferences, interacting with industry, financial aid info, resume building workshops, interview skills workshops. The project focused on early career students (mostly sophomores and some freshmen). The methods of this research involved data collection and analysis, surveys, bivariate descriptive statistics with statistical significance, and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The authors have found evidence supporting that such activities have played a positive role in student’s continued retention, eventual graduation and overall self-confidence in their engineering/computing persona going forward. Other higher education institutions are encouraged to pursue similar activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Learning and Engagement in the Flipped Classroom of Analytical Mathematics

Anastasia Sofroniou

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 93-111
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130275

Learning techniques have changed over time in order to try and improve student engagement across different subjects in higher education. Mathematics has dominantly adhered to certain learning methods that use a more conventional approach. Interactive and active learning in Mathematics tend to be more common in further education yet, university level Mathematics is more complex, heavy in content and poses more difficulty in applying active learning approaches as a passive approach of traditional lectures has always been applied. The issues of learning problems in mathematics is ignored and the lack of metacognitive awareness of mathematical thinking and problem-solving skills seem to persist despite differences amongst educators on an effective learning methodology.

Following the reform movement in mathematics education in the mid 1980’s, resulting from the dissatisfaction of conventional approaches, recommending the restructuring of mathematical delivery marked the need for modifications in teaching methodology. Employing multiple models to deliver lessons may implement the changes needed to drive student engagement and satisfaction to improve the experience in learning mathematics. In order for these methods to become applicable and effective in students’ experiences in mathematical education, educators need to be encouraged to present active learning techniques so that students can begin to facilitate their own learning which can be done through introducing approaches specific to the individual such as student-centred approaches.

This paper evaluates the techniques used by mathematicians to deliver lessons and how it reflects on learning and engagement of students in comparison to the flipped classroom approach which inverts the common traditional lecture style used in classrooms. The flipped classroom model in this study is adopted to a topic from the university foundation level module, Analytical Mathematics, whereby results from the quantitative analysis undertaken show a decrease in the success of students’ performance suggesting a lesser impact on improved learning. With regards to engagement, observations from the qualitative analysis of the study highlight positive aspects of the flipped classroom model, specifically an optimistic engagement amongst peers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Relationships of Autonomy- supportive Climate, Psychological Need Satisfaction and Thwarting with Students’ Self-talk in Physical Education

Evangelos Brisimis, Charalampos Krommidas, Evangelos Galanis, Aristea Karamitrou, Ioannis Syrmpas, Nikos Comoutos

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 112-122
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130276

Aims: Based on the framework of the Self-determination Theory and focusing on the theory of Basic Psychological Needs, we explored the relationships between Physical Education (PE) teachers’ autonomy-supportive behaviors and students’ need satisfaction, need thwarting, and self-talk during the PE lesson.

Methodology: Participants were 544 primary and secondary education Greek students (aged from 12 to 15 years), from nine elementary schools (n = 259) and eight secondary schools (n = 285) in central Greece, who completed a multi-section questionnaire.

Results: Results revealed that PE teachers’ autonomy-supportive climate and need satisfaction was positively associated with positive self-talk and negatively associated with negative self-talk, whereas need thwarting was positively related to negative self-talk and negatively related to positive self-talk. Regression analyses revealed that autonomy-supportive climate and competence need thwarting were significant predictors (positive and negative, respectively) of students’ positive self-talk. Furthermore, autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction were negative predictors, whereas competence and relatedness need thwarting were positive predictors of students’ negative self-talk.  

Conclusion: Overall, the findings suggest that when PE teachers create a class environment that supports students’ autonomy and the satisfaction of their BPN, while at the same prevents need thwarting, they can positively influence students’ self-talk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Computer Simulation Package on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Some Science Concepts in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Ese Monica Alake, Jethro Oludare Olojo

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 123-130
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130277

Use of computer simulated games among children/students is common and science students are not left out. Whereas poor performance and dwindling enrolment in science subjects have been observed among students in Nigeria, not much evidence has emerged at solving the problems from computer simulation mode of teaching. This study was designed to determine the effects of computer simulation package (CSP) on academic performance of senior secondary school students on the concepts of pollution and energy. Using multi-stage purposive and simple random sampling technique, six hundred (600) Senior Secondary (SS) class two students were selected from twelve co-educational schools consisting of four (4) schools in each of the senatorial districts of the State  and fifty (50) students  participated. Three hundred (300) students each were used for experimental and control groups. A validated Students’ Achievement Test (SAT) instrument, having 30 multiple choice items was used to generate pre-test and post-test data. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test each of the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings showed that the use of computer simulation package (CSP) has significant effect on students’ academic performance (F-cal 955.93, P = 0.00*< 0.05) while gender showed no significant influence on students’ performance (F-cal 1.03, P = 0.312 >0.05). Thus, science teachers should be trained and retrained in seminars, workshop and conferences on the use of computer simulation packages in order to encourage personalized learning among science students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organizational Climate at the University of Eastern Philippines Pedro Rebadulla Memorial Campus Catubig, Northern Samar

Lyra Paz P. Lluz, Aveliza T. Basibas, Alfie E. Estudillo

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 131-141
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130278

This study aimed to assess organizational school climate of University of Eastern Philippines, Pedro Rebadulla Memorial Campus, Catubig Northern .Samar for school year: 2017-2018.  It aimed to identify the perception of faculty  towards organizational  climate in terms of:  Supportive Behavior; Directive Behavior ; Engaged Behavior;  Intimate Behavior; and Frustrated Behavior; determine  the standardized scores of organizational climate;  and determine  the general openness index  among employees in the workplace.  Moreover, this study was conducted to improve the organizational climate of the institution by getting or assessing the supportive, directive, engaged, and frustrated behavior from the respective respondents.

This study used a standardized questionnaire which is called the “Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) adopted from Wayne K Hoy (1991). It is an instrument used to measure important aspects of teacher-teacher and dean-teacher interactions. Along with this, the study was designed with descriptive methodology which involves the analysis of the organizational climate of the university for the school year 2017-2018 and to determine the climate openness of the school specifically focusing on the dimensions or subtest covered by the Organizational Climate Questionnaire (OCDQ-RS).

This study found out that the organizational climate was higher than 84% of the schools from the normative samples, and the openness index of the organizational climate scored 380.9 The University falls below the average range for openness.  Finally, it is recommended that the University should conduct an intervention on how improve the openness index of the organizational climate.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Framework for Appraising Education

K. C. Koutsopoulos

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 142-154
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130279

Appraisal is the major performance management tool that is widely used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of education in different contexts. In the European education environment, it has been recognized that the transition from learning to learning outcomes relies on developing appraisal frameworks that can appraise what a student knows, understands and mainly how to utilize what he has learned, as well as on evaluation frameworks of programs and in general of the educational approach. This paper has two main objectives. Firstly, it critically reviews the extant literature on student/program appraisal of the European education. Secondly, based on that review it presents a common framework for student assessment and program evaluation, which relies on four pedagogical issues: The PRACTICE applied, focusing on the students’ knowledge achieved and on the design of the educational approach; the TOOL utilized that concerns the data collection and the data base creation; and the APPROACH in appraising, which includes the analyses performed and the time to materialize them. These three are creating a three-dimensional space, within which any aspect of the fourth issue, the NATURE of both the student assessment and the project evaluation, can take any position in this three-dimensional space.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Performance of Students of Rural and Urban Primary Schools in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece, in the 1st Grade of Secondary School (Gymnasium) During 2012/2013

Dimitrios Gkoros

Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, Page 170-182
DOI: 10.9734/jesbs/2020/v33i1130282

Αim: To investigate whether and to what extent students attending small rural primary schools are "disadvantaged" compared to students attending urban schools as well as what are the differences in their performance and consistency in their attendance in the 1st  grade of secondary school (gymnasium).

Methodology: we chose for our research the quantitative research approach, to study a large number of cases and analyze statistically the research data. More specifically, the choice of the sample which included all the students who studied in the secondary schools of the Prefecture of Arta and specifically in the 1st grade, after collecting their report cards , was considered more reliable. The sample of the research, therefore, consists of 364 students who used to study during the school year 2012-2013 in the prefecture of Arta in the 1st grade of secondary school (gymnasium) and was made by simple random sampling.

Results: As evidenced by the research findings, students who attended urban primary schools, achieve better performance in the first class of secondary school. In particular their average grade of achievement is higher especially in Mathematics and Modern Greek Language & Literature where they achieve also higher grades. However, as far as Science classes are concerned, no difference in grades is observed. Finally, regarding the continuous attendance of students, those who attended small primary schools had more absences during the school year.

Conclusion: The results of the research show a number of differences in the performance of students who have previously attended urban and rural primary schools, with those of urban schools being superior. However, the factors that constitute an obstacle to the proper and smooth operation of a rural school are numerous and also, the advantages of a rural school are difficult to be measured quantitatively.